bank of america logo history

www.logaster.com › Blog › Great Brands Logos. Download Bank of America Mobile Banking and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch. Version History. Nov 10, 2021. Find the latest Bank of America Corporation (BAC) stock quote, history, news and other vital information to help you with your stock trading and investing.

Bank of america logo history -

The Wyeths: Three Generations
Works from the Bank of America Collection

For three generations, the Wyeths have created art that captures the imagination and admiration of a wide audience. This exhibition presents more than sixty paintings, drawings, and illustrations by N.C. (Newell Converse) Wyeth, his daughter Henriette Wyeth, his son Andrew Wyeth, and his grandson Jamie Wyeth. The works— from the early 1900s to the early 2000s—reveal the breadth of the Wyeth family's creative output and illuminate both common themes within the works and the artists' individual styles.

N.C. Wyeth (1882—1945) has long been considered one of the nation's leading illustrators. In the early 1900s, he studied with illustrator Howard Pyle in Delaware. In 1911, he built a house and studio in nearby Chadds Fords, Pennsylvania. Later, he bought a sea captain's house in Maine and in 1931 built a small studio, which he shared with his son Andrew and his daughters. The exhibition includes illustrations for books by Robert Louis Stevenson and Washington Irving as well as historical scenes, seascapes, and landscapes. 

Henriette Wyeth (1907—1997) was the oldest child of N.C. Wyeth and his wife, Carolyn Bockius. A professional artist, she married one of her father's pupils and settled in the Southwest. Her paintings represent a personal response to her subjects and her paintings of flowers and children express the fragile nature of beauty and life. Like her father, she painted primarily in oil and incorporated a wide range of color into her work. The exhibition includes examples of her portaits of family members and still life paintings. 

Andrew Wyeth (1917—2009) remains one of the United States' most popular artists, and his paintings follow the American Realist tradition, which includes Winslow Homer. He was influenced by the works of Homer, whose watercolor technique he admired, as well as by the art of Howard Pyle and his father. While Andrew paints recognizable images, his use of line and space often imbue his works with an underlying abstract quality. The exhibition includes important works from the 1970s and 1980s as well as more recent paintings. 

Jamie Wyeth (b. 1946), like his father and grandfather, has painted subjects of everyday life, in particular the landscape, animals, and people of Pennsylvania and Maine. In contrast to his father—who painted with watercolor, drybrush, and tempera—Jamies works in oil and mixed media, creating lush, painterly surfaces. Eighteen paintings represent all periods of his career.

Источник: https://www.albanyinstitute.org/

Our history

Since 2000 Santander Group has acquired Banespa in Brazil, Serfín in Mexico and Banco Santiago in Chile, strengthening its position as the leading financial franchise in Latin America.

In 2003 we established Santander Consumer through the integration of CC-Bank in Germany, Finconsumo in Italy, Hispamer in Spain and other Group companies. The countries where the consumer banking franchise is present now include Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Denmark, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada.

In April 2004 we moved our central services from Madrid to our new corporate headquarters at Santander Group City, which now has a workforce of more than 6,800.

In November of that year, we reached another important milestone: the acquisition of Abbey, the United Kingdom’s sixth-largest bank.

In 2005 we reached an agreement to take a 19.8% stake in Sovereign Bancorp, the United States’ eighteenth-largest bank.

In 2006 we posted a record €7.596 billion profit, the largest of any Spanish company that year, and we greatly boosted our investment in customer banking and service quality. “We want to be your bank” in Spain and other promotional actions in Portugal, Abbey and America are examples of this effort.

In 2007 as we celebrated our 150th anniversary, we were the twelfth largest bank in the world by market capitalisation and the seventh by profit and we boasted the largest retail network in the Western world: 10,852 branches. We formed a banking consortium with The Royal Bank of Scotland and Fortis for the purchase of ABN Amro, through which we were awarded Banco Real in Brazil, doubling our presence in that country.

In 2008 we continued to grow through important acquisitions in the strategic United Kingdom market. We added Alliance & Leicester and Bradford & Bingley, thus reaching 1,300 branches in the country and positioning ourselves as the United Kingdom’s third-largest bank by deposits. Our €8.876 billion in profit made us the third-largest bank in the world in earnings that year.

Источник: https://www.santander.com/en/about-us/our-history

File:Bank of America logo.svg

DescriptionBank of America logo.svg
English: Bank of America logo, The Bank of America Corporation is an American multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Charlotte, North Carolina. It is the second largest bank holding company in the United States by assets.
Español: Logo de Bank of America, es la segunda banca comercial más grande de los Estados Unidos en cuanto a activos, detrás del J.P.Morgan.
中文(简体): Bank of America logo,美国银行,以资产计是美国第一大商业银行。美国银行在全世界150多个国家拥有约5600家支行,16200个ATM点。2010年根据总收入排名,美国银行是美国第三大公司[4]。2010年,根据Forbes Global 2000,是世界第三大公司[5]。该行的建立可以追溯到1784年的马萨诸塞州银行,是美国第二历史悠久的银.
العربية: Bank of America logo,بنك أوف أمريكا (بالإنجليزية:Bank of America) هو ثاني أكبر البنوك التجارية في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية من حيث القيمة السوقية. كما أنه أكبر بنك أمريكي يقدم الخدمات المالية وأكبرها من حيث الممتلكات.
Português: Bank of America logo,é um dos maiores bancos americanos e tem sede em Charlotte, Carolina do Norte.
Deutsch: Bank of America logo, ist seit Juli 2006 das größte Kreditinstitut der Vereinigten Staaten mit Hauptsitz in Charlotte, North Carolina. Die Ursprünge der Bank gehen auf die im Jahr 1784 gegründete Bank of Massachusetts zurück, was sie zusätzlich zur zweitältesten Bank der USA macht.
Simple English: Bank of America logo, is a multinational bank group. Its headquarters is in Charlotte, North Carolina,U.S.A.
Источник: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bank_of_America_logo.svg

Evolving into a household name

For Bank of America, it began with a vision: to bring together a full suite of financial services that gives customers better ways to manage their financial lives and businesses. The then-San Francisco-based financial institution expanded in pursuit of realizing this vision, culminating in the 1998 merger of its parent company, BankAmerica Corp., with Charlotte-based NationsBank. At the time, it was the largest banking M&A in history. The move created the very first coast-to-coast retail bank and set the stage for Bank of America to enter other sectors through subsequent acquisitions, like private banking for high-net worth individuals and credit card issuing.

As the organization expanded, it became more important than ever to maintain and grow a consistent brand presence. As a trusted environmental branding partner since 1992, Monigle has established and executed against design standards that have helped knit together every aspect of Bank of America’s financial services — from retail banking, home loans, and wealth management to over 16,000 ATM locations.

Never lost in translation

In its acquisition of Merrill Lynch — still one of the biggest deals in Wall Street history — Bank of America strengthened its position in markets across the world. Expanding internationally requires a high degree of oversight and quality control. Each international market added presents a big, important question: How can we deliver on our brand story with design that aligns with this country’s values, tone and culture, without losing our brand identity?

The answer is always different, but it often means carefully modifying expression. Following the Merrill Lynch acquisition, the team sought to balance the equity of the two brands, considering the strength of each across markets to fully capitalize on the power of both brands. The result was two distinct enterprise signage strategies — one international, one domestic — that also accounted for exception countries.

A continual opportunity to re-examine and refresh

Because the ATM experience is such a prominent customer touchpoint, accessibility to all services for each and every customer is a top priority for Bank of America. This means staying on top of Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) regulations. By continually refreshing ATMs, Bank of America ensures both that customers are able to access the machines, and that the machines are always equipped with the latest technology.

As it upgrades its ATMS, Bank of America assesses every design decision from multiple perspectives to ensure:

 

  • ADA compliance
  • The latest in technology and innovation
  • Environmentally sustainability and responsible resourcing
  • Cost-efficient
  • Unmatched service to customers

Bank of America views environmental branding as a key driver of brand value and a way to express the core tenets of the brand.

The evolution continues

Today, as measured by assets, Bank of America is one of the top-10 banks in the world. It’s achieved its position not only through a series of savvy acquisitions but also because of its investment in environmental branding. Bank of America views it as a key driver of brand value and a way to express the core tenets of the brand. As the brand continues to evolve, Bank of America brand leaders continually review the company’s environmental branding program and signage assets to ensure optimal expression of the brand. Through it all, over the course of a three-decade partnership, we’ve been — and continue to be — there to support Bank of America in the evolution of its brand.

By continually refreshing ATMs, Bank of America ensures both that customers are able to access the machines, and that the machines are always equipped with the latest technology.

16,000 ATMs

As it continually updates its network of ATMs across the country, Bank of America is rolling out support for cash withdrawal using Apple Pay.

50 States

Bank of America has presence in every state, as well as Washington, D.C., the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico.

#2 By assets

One of the “big four” banks, Bank of America is the second-largest bank in the U.S. by assets.

4 million Served

In the U.S., Bank of America serves approximately 47 million consumer and small business relationships.

KeyBank

KeyBank

Following a major acquisition, the bank converts more than 400 sites at warp speed.

Read more

Chase

Chase

An acquisition spurs the nation’s largest financial institution to change the face of retail banking.

Read more

Источник: https://www.monigle.com/client-story/bank-of-america/

Top 10 Bank Logos Explained

How do we decide which bank to trust with our hard-earned money?  Is there visual science that makes us feel safe and secure? Does the logo really matter in branding of a financial institution?

Best Bank Logos

  1. Bank of America
  2. Chase Bank
  3. Citi Bank
  4. TD Bank
  5. Deutsche Bank
  6. ING Bank
  7. Societe General
  8. UBS Bank
  9. Raiffeisen Bank
  10. Getin Bank

A bank’s visual identity: it’s logo, colors and typography must present the company as trustworthy and professional – this is imperative.

In this article I talk about best bank branding examples.

Banks face a particular challenge when it comes to branding because the subjects of money is sensitive, therefore branding for banks is particularly important.

If your financial institution logo looks unprofessional you won’t project the right image and connect with your customers.

In this article I describe some of the most popular bank logos.

Colors

Never does a color play such a significant role as in the logo of a financial institution.

Most of the banks opt for blue as their primary color.

This is by no means a coincidence, according to color psychology, blue instils sort of serenity and reliability in people.

It’s conservative and serious, thus appropriate to branding a company that handle people's finances.

Typography

Typography can really manipulate the significance of what it communicates.

Due to its effects on the context of communication, the right font can make wonders.

Simple sans-serif fonts is what most banks opt for.

Choosing the right typeface can communicate your brand's strengths and also increase your brand's memorability.

Symbolism

It is important to know what an individual form means and how our brains read them.

Square shapes convey feeling of solidity and stability.

If we are talking about the popularity of various shapes, we can say that a rectangle is the most popular shape in branding of banks.

Let's look at some of the top banks and their logos:

1. Bank of America

Bank of America's name is self explanatory, it's an American multinational investment bank and financial services company.

The colors are taken from the US flag and evoke feelings of patriotism.

The mark symbolizes American flag and farm field.

The logo taps into the nations patriotic feelings as well as to cement the fact that bank is a wholly American institution.

Bank of America logo explained

Why farmer's field? - many farmers trust and work with the bank and the image was meant to resound with them.

See the logo in use:

The logo was introduced in 2001 after the bank restructured.

2. Chase Bank

Chase Bank is a national bank headquartered in Manhattan, New York City.What's the Chase Bank logo meaning?

This powerful octagonal-geometric form was perhaps the first abstract symbol used in modern banking.

The abstract shape embodies feelings of motion and activity.

The form is divided in such a way as to suggest forward motion within the framework of control.

Chase Bank logo explained

The activity is centered around the square, implying growth from a central foundation.See the logo in use:

The Chase Bank logo was designed in 1961 by a CGH, a New York based design studio.

Also check the Chase bank logo sketch in my other article.

3. Citi Bank

Citibank was founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York and later become national bank.

The name is written in blue letters, and a red arc caps the "t" letter.

The umbrella secures customers from financial upheavals.

The arc is a simplified umbrella image borrowed from the logo of Travelers Group - one of the merging companies)

Citi Bank logo explained

The blue color stands for trust; the red color stands for passion.

See the logo in use:

The Citi Bank logo was designed by Paula Scher on a napkin and cost $1,5m.

Also check the Citi bank logo sketch in my other article.

4. TD Bank

The bank’s “TD” initials stand for Toronto-Dominion Bank and it’s a Canadian bank that expanded to the United States in 2008.

The ligature symbolizes connection and coherence.

Squares signify the idea of an enclosure, home, and settlement; the green color symbolizes money and vitality.

TD Bank logo explained

The square is the most "stable" form of visual language and it represents an order and discipline.

See the logo in use:

The green color and distinctive symbol makes TD bank visible from far as practically no-other bank in America uses anything similar.

5. Deutsche Bank

Deutsche Bank AG is a German investment bank and financial services company headquartered in Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany.

The combination of slash and square is a long-established symbol of the Western economy.

What's the Deutsche Bank logo meaning?

The “slash” stands for consistent growth, the square for stability.

Squares are commonly used in banking logo design in order to built trust and stability and this logo is perhaps the best example of it.

Deautsche Bank logo explained

It's simplicity and uniqueness makes it to just burn into your mind.

German bank logos are pretty straightforward and minimalist.See the logo in use:

The Deutsche Bank logo was designed by Antony Stankowsky in 1972.

6. ING Bank

The ING Group is a Dutch multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Amsterdam.

The lion goes way back to ING’s Dutch roots - lion is the country’s national symbol.

The lion symbolizes strength, courage and authority.

The orange color is the national color of Netherlands where the banks if from.

ING Bank logo explained

Orange stands for energy and vitality according to the psychology of color.

See the logo in use:

The ING name stands for "Internationale Nederlanden Groep" in dutch.

Read more about the history of ING brand.

7. Societe General

Societe General is a French multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in Paris, France - this is the only french bank logo I talk about in here.

The square evokes solidity, strength and rigor while the color contrast indicates the balanced relationship between the bank and its clients.

The two halves stand for harmony and the white bar for openness.

Red, which is bright and dynamic, is associated with passion and emotion, while black is the color of solemnity, seriousness, and institutions.

Societe Generale logo explained

The larger typeset suggests the bank's capacity for flexibility and adaptation.

All caps stand for leadership and authority.

The current logo was designed in 1989 by Sopha, a design agency owned by the RSCG group.

Read more about the history of Societe Generale logo on the bank's website.

8. UBS Bank

UBS Group AG is a Swiss multinational investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland.

UBS is a bank from Switzerland that features three keys in its logo.

The keys stand for the company's values of confidence, security, and discretion.

What's the UBS logo meaning? T

he three keys bear a traditional meaning - they unlock the doors to wealth, health and luck according to the historical belief.

UBS Bank logo explained

See the logo in use:

The UBS logo is very unique in every aspect of it, starting with the serif font, red color and keys symbol that no-other financial institution used before.

9. Raiffeisen Bank

The symbol used in the Raiffeisen bank logo is called the Gable Cross.

The two crossed horde heads symbolize protection and safety.

This symbol that inspired the logo has a traditional meaning and was used on the roofs of European houses.

Raiffeisen Bank logo explained

According to the belief the roof gable was to protect the occupants against all dangers.

See the logo in use:

The Gable Cross was chosen as a trademark in 1877 – when Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen (the founder) was still alive.

10. Getin Bank

The branding of Gettin Bank is quite fresh and it sort of breaks with boring squares and blue in banking logos.

It's a perfect example of a modern bank logo.

The arrow symbolizes forward moving and call to action.

An arrow symbol in banking is kind of refreshing and unique.It also works great with the name.

GetIn Bank logo explained

The fresh green makes the logo stand out among competitors - who else uses blue in banking?

See the logo in use:

Gettin Bank is a small polish bank, but I decided to include it in my list, just to show you that a banking logo doesn't have to be boring.

Logos of Banks - Conclusions

Make no mistake: your financial institution’s logo and brand identity is one of the most powerful (if not subtle) weapons in your marketing arsenal.

By describing logos of different banks my goal was to make you aware of the importance of branding a bank or financial institution – it’s always good to learn form the best!

Do not underestimate the impact it has — whether positive or negative — on people’s perception and your bottom line.

Logo and colors must present the bank as trustworthy and professional.

A logo is the heart and soul of your bank, the image that differentiates you from other financial institutions.

But logo is just a part of the story and logo alone is not a brand.

Before jumping right into designing your logo, you should work on your brand strategy first and define who you are and who you want to connect with.

Are you looking to hire for your brank branding? — Start a project here

Источник: https://www.ebaqdesign.com/blog/bank-logos

Our company

Investing in securities involves risks, and there is always the potential of losing money when you invest in securities.

This material does not take into account your particular investment objectives, financial situations or needs and is not intended as a recommendation, offer or solicitation for the purchase or sale of any security, financial instrument, or strategy. Before acting on any information in this material, you should consider whether it is suitable for your particular circumstances and, if necessary, seek professional advice. Any opinions expressed herein are given in good faith, are subject to change without notice, and are only correct as of the stated date of their issue.

Content contained herein may have been produced by an outside party that is not affiliated with Bank of America or any of its affiliates (Bank of America). Opinions or ideas expressed are not necessarily those of Bank of America nor do they reflect their views or endorsement. These materials are for informational purposes only. Bank of America does not assume liability for any loss or damage resulting from anyone's reliance on the information provided. Certain links may direct you away from Bank of America to an unaffiliated site. Bank of America has not been involved in the preparation of the content supplied at the unaffiliated sites and does not guarantee or assume any responsibility for its content. When you visit these sites, you are agreeing to all of their terms of use, including their privacy and security policies.

Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated (also referred to as “MLPF&S” or “Merrill”) makes available certain investment products sponsored, managed, distributed or provided by companies that are affiliates of Bank of America Corporation (“BofA Corp.”). MLPF&S is a registered broker-dealer, registered investment adviser, Member SIPC and a wholly owned subsidiary of BofA Corp.

Trust and fiduciary services are provided by Bank of America Private Bank, a division of Bank of America, N.A., Member FDIC, and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bank of America Corporation (“BofA Corp.”). Insurance and annuity products are offered through Merrill Lynch Life Agency Inc. (“MLLA”), a licensed insurance agency and wholly-owned subsidiary of BofA Corp.

Investment products offered through MLPF&S and insurance and annuity products offered through MLLA:

Are Not FDIC InsuredAre Not Bank GuaranteedMay Lose Value
Are Not DepositsAre Not Insured by Any Governmental AgencyAre Not a Condition to Any Banking Service or Activity



"Bank of America" is the marketing name for the global banking and global markets business of Bank of America Corporation. Lending, derivatives, and other commercial banking activities are performed globally by banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation, including Bank of America, N.A., Member FDIC. Securities, strategic advisory, and other investment banking activities are performed globally by investment banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation ("Investment Banking Affiliates"), including, in the United States, BofA Securities, Inc., Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated, and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp., all of which are registered broker-dealers and Members of SIPC, and, in other jurisdictions, by locally registered entities. BofA Securities, Inc., Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp. are registered as futures commission merchants with the CFTC and are members of the NFA.

Company goals are aspirational and not guarantees or promises that all goals will be met. Statistics and metrics included in our ESG documents are estimates and may be based on assumptions or developing standards.

Источник: https://about.bankofamerica.com/en/our-company

Related Videos

Bank of America logo history

: Bank of america logo history

Us bank business checking account
Are loveland schools open today
Chase amazon financing

The Wyeths: Three Generations
Works from the Bank of America Collection

For three generations, the Wyeths have created art that captures the imagination and admiration of a wide audience. This exhibition presents more than sixty paintings, drawings, and illustrations by N.C. (Newell Converse) Wyeth, his daughter Henriette Wyeth, his son Andrew Wyeth, and his grandson Jamie Wyeth. The works— from the early 1900s to the early 2000s—reveal the breadth of the Wyeth family's creative output and illuminate both common themes within the works and the artists' individual styles.

N.C. Wyeth (1882—1945) has long been considered one of the nation's leading illustrators. In the early 1900s, he studied with illustrator Howard Pyle in Delaware. In 1911, he built a walmart money card account login and studio in nearby Chadds Fords, Pennsylvania. Later, he bought a sea captain's house in Maine and in 1931 built a small studio, which he shared with his son Andrew and his daughters. The exhibition includes illustrations for books by Robert Louis Stevenson and Washington Irving as well as historical scenes, seascapes, and landscapes. 

Henriette Wyeth (1907—1997) was the oldest child of N.C. Wyeth and his wife, Carolyn Bockius. A professional artist, she married one of her father's pupils and settled in the Southwest. Her paintings represent a personal response to her subjects and her paintings of flowers and children express the fragile nature of beauty and life. Like her father, she painted primarily in oil and incorporated a wide range of color into her work. The exhibition includes examples of her portaits of family members and still life paintings. 

Andrew Wyeth (1917—2009) remains one of the United States' most popular artists, and his paintings follow the American Realist tradition, which includes Winslow Homer. He was influenced by the works of Homer, whose watercolor technique he admired, as well as by the art of Howard Pyle and his father. While Andrew paints recognizable images, his use of line and space often imbue his works with an underlying abstract quality. The exhibition includes important works from the 1970s and 1980s as well as more recent paintings. 

Jamie Wyeth (b. 1946), like his father and grandfather, has painted subjects of everyday life, in particular the landscape, animals, and people of Pennsylvania and Maine. In contrast to his father—who painted with watercolor, drybrush, and tempera—Jamies works in oil and mixed media, creating lush, painterly surfaces. Eighteen paintings represent all periods of his career.

Источник: https://www.albanyinstitute.org/

The Second Bank of the United States

In the years leading up to the War of 1812, the U.S. economy had been on the upswing. The war with Britain, however, disrupted foreign trade. As one of the United States’ largest trading partners, Britain used its navy to blockade U.S. trade with other nations. The war prevented U.S. farmers and manufacturers from exporting merchandise, blocked U.S. merchants and fisherman from sailing the high seas, and curtailed federal government revenues, which were derived mainly from tariffs on trade. By 1815, the United States found itself heavily in debt, much like it had been at the end of the Revolutionary War thirty years earlier.

In January 1815, the United States had been without a national bank for almost four years. Many people thought that a successor would again provide relief for the country’s ailing economy and help in paying its war debt. Bank of america logo history men figured prominently in establishing this new entity, commonly referred to as the second Bank of the United States: the financiers John Jacob Astor, David Parish, Stephen Girard, and Jacob Barker; Alexander Dallas, who would become secretary of the Treasury in 1814; and Compass com school. John C. Calhoun of South Carolina. These men thought that reestablishing a national bank would solve some of the country’s economic woes. In particular, Astor, Parish, Girard, and Barker – as lenders and financiers -- felt that a national bank would restore a stable currency, thereby avoiding bouts of inflation and insuring their business interests.

Establishing a Second National Bank

Despite broad support for reestablishing a national bank, the road to re-creation was not smooth. In January 1814, Congress received a petition signed by 150 businessmen from New York City, urging the legislative body to create a second national bank. In February, and again in November, Calhoun put forth plans to create a bank that would be headquartered in the District of Columbia, but his bills did not pass.

In April 1814, President James Madison, who had opposed the creation of the first Bank of the United States in 1791, reluctantly admitted to the need for another national bank. He believed a bank was necessary to finance the war with Britain. But later that year, progress in peace negotiations led Madison to withdraw his support for the proposed national bank.

After peace with Britain came in 1815, Congress rejected new efforts to create the bank. In the months that followed, however, the federal government’s financial position deteriorated amid a bank of america logo history economic downturn. Many state-chartered banks had stopped redeeming their notes, which convinced Madison and his advisers that the time had come to move the country toward a more uniform, stable paper currency. In his annual report, Dallas again called for the establishment of a national bank. After much debate and a couple of additional attempts, Madison finally signed in April 1816 an act establishing the second Bank of the United States.

Bank Structure and Operations

The Bank opened for business in Philadelphia in January 1817. It had much in common with its forerunner, including its functions and structure. It would act as fiscal agent for the federal government — holding its deposits, making its payments, and helping it issue debt to the public — and it would issue and redeem banknotes and keep state banks’ issuance of notes in check. Also like its predecessor, the Bank had a twenty-year charter and operated as a commercial bank that accepted deposits and made loans to the public, both businesses and individuals. Its board consisted of twenty-five directors, with five appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate.

The capitalization for the second Bank was $35 million, considerably higher than the $10 million underwriting of the first Bank. Subscriptions went on sale in July 1816, and the sale period was set at three weeks. To make it easier for investors to buy subscriptions, sales were held in twenty cities. After three weeks, $3 million of scrips remained unsold, so Philadelphia banker Stephen Girard bought them.

The Bank’s reach was far greater than that of its predecessor. Its branches eventually totaled twenty-five in number, compared to only eight for the first Bank. The extensive branch network aided the country’s westward expansion and its economic growth in several ways. The branches provided credit to businesses and farmers, and these loans helped finance the production of goods and agricultural output as well as the shipment of these goods to domestic and foreign destinations. Moreover, the network helped move the money deposited in the branches to other parts of the nation, facilitating both the government’s ability to make payments and the branches’ ability to supply credit.

Unlike modern central banks, the Bank did not set monetary policy as we know it today. It also did not regulate, hold the reserves of, or act as a lender of last resort for other financial institutions. Nonetheless, its prominence as one of the largest U.S. corporations and its branches’ broad geographic position in the expanding economy allowed it to conduct a rudimentary monetary policy. The Bank’s notes, backed by substantial gold reserves, gave the country a more stable national currency. By managing its lending policies and the flow of funds through its accounts, the Bank could — and did — alter the supply of money and credit in the economy and hence the level of interest rates charged to borrowers.

A $1,000 note issued by the Second Bank of the United States.

These actions, which had effects similar to today’s monetary policy actions, can be seen most clearly in the national bank’s interactions with state banks. In the course of business, it would accumulate the notes of the state banks and hold them in its vault. When it wanted to slow the growth of money and credit, it would present the notes for collection in gold or silver, thereby reducing state banks’ reserves and putting the brakes on state banks’ ability to circulate new banknotes (paper currency). To speed up the growth of money and credit, the Bank would hold on to the state banks’ notes, thereby increasing state banks’ reserves and allowing those banks to issue more banknotes through their loan-making process.

Bank Bank of america logo history first president of the Bank was William Jones, a political appointee and a former secretary of the Navy who had gone bankrupt. Under Jones’s leadership, the Bank first extended too much credit and then reversed that trend too quickly. The result was a financial panic that drove the economy into a steep recession.

When Jones resigned in 1819, shareholders elected Langdon Cheves, an attorney from South Carolina who had served as speaker of the House of Representatives, as president of the Bank. Cheves cut in half the number of second Bank banknotes in circulation, made fewer loans, foreclosed on mortgages, and exerted more control over the Bank’s branches. He presented state banknotes for specie, a request that sent many state-chartered financial institutions into bankruptcy because they did not have enough gold and silver on hand to cover the redemptions. Another depression, characterized by deflation and high unemployment, ensued. Although the economic slump was part of a worldwide downturn, the Bank’s policies magnified the contraction in the United States. Public opinion started turning against the Bank as many believed it contributed to the recession.

In 1823, Cheves withdrew his name from consideration for reelection to the top Bank post, and Nicholas Biddle, a member of a wealthy and prominent Philadelphia family, became head of the Bank. Biddle had previously served on the Bank’s board of directors and in the Pennsylvania legislature. With Biddle’s guidance, animosity toward the Bank diminished. The Bank contributed significantly to economic stability and growth. Biddle increased the number of notes issued by the Bank and restrained the expansion of the quantity of state banks’ notes by pressing them to redeem their own notes in specie.

The Battle Over the Second Bank

In 1828, Andrew Jackson, hero of the Battle of New Orleans and a determined foe of banks in general and the second Bank of the United States in particular, was elected president of the United States. Jackson’s dislike of the Bank may have been fueled by rumors that Henry Clay, a congressman from Kentucky, was manipulating the Bank to help Jackson’s opponent, John Quincy Adams, but it did not rise to a major campaign issue.

In contrast, the election of 1832, which sent Jackson back to the White House, put the Bank in the spotlight. A request to renew the Bank’s charter was sent to Congress in January 1832, four years before the charter was set to expire. The legislation passed both the House and Senate, but it failed to garner enough votes to overcome Jackson’s veto.

Why was Jackson so opposed to the Bank? On a personal level, Jackson brought with him to Washington a strong distrust of banks in general, stemming, at least in part, from a land deal that had gone sour more than two decades before. In that deal, Jackson had accepted paper notes — essentially paper money — as payment for some land he had sold. When the buyers who had issued the notes went bankrupt, the paper he held became worthless. Although Jackson managed to save himself from financial ruin, he never trusted paper notes again. In Jackson’s opinion, only specie — silver or gold coins — qualified as an acceptable medium for transactions. Since banks issued paper notes, Jackson found banking practices suspicious. Jackson also distrusted credit — another function of banks — believing people should not borrow money to pay for what they wanted.

Jackson’s distrust of the Bank was also political, based on a belief that a federal institution such as the Bank trampled on states’ rights. In addition, he felt that the Bank put too much power in the hands of too few private citizens -- power that could be used to the detriment of the government. The Bank also lacked an effective system of regulation. In other words, it was too far outside the jurisdiction of Congress, the president, and voters.

Biddle, who served as president from 1823 until the Bank’s demise in 1836, refused to accept any criticism of the Bank’s operations, especially claims about the bank of america logo history of some of the Bank’s branches. He also was not above allowing the Bank to make loans to his friends while denying loans to those less friendly. These actions subjected the Bank to public criticism. Despite all this, Biddle was an excellent administrator who understood banking.

Jackson saw his 1832 win as validation of antibank sentiment. Shortly after the election, Jackson ordered that federal deposits be removed from the second National Bank and put into state banks. Although Jackson’s order met with heavy criticism from members of his administration, most of the government’s money had been moved out of the Bank by late 1833. The loss of the federal government’s deposits caused the Bank to shrink in both size and influence.

Meanwhile, in Philadelphia, Biddle responded to Jackson’s action by announcing that the Bank would (or could) not respond to the loss of government deposits by attracting new private deposits or raising new capital. Instead, the Bank would limit credit and call in loans. This contraction of credit, he believed, might create a backlash against Jackson and force the president to relent and redeposit government funds in the Bank, perhaps even renewing the charter. But Biddle’s move backfired: in the end, it helped to support Jackson’s claim that the Bank had been created to serve the interests of the wealthy, not to meet the nation’s financial needs.

Closing of the Second Bank of the United States

One event that foreshadowed the Bank’s demise was its supporters’ inability to muster a two-thirds majority to override Jackson’s veto in 1832. More damaging was the removal of federal deposits in 1833, resulting not only in a reduction in the Bank’s size but also in its ability to influence the nation’s currency and credit. In April 1834, the House of Representatives voted against rechartering the Bank and confirmed that federal deposits should remain in state banks. These developments, coupled with Jackson’s determination to do away with the Bank and the widespread defeat of the pro-Bank Whig Party in the 1834 congressional elections, sealed the Bank’s fate.

It would be more than seventy-five years before the United States made another attempt to establish a central bank. During that period, the U.S. economy experienced several banking crises. But after the Panic of 1907, which triggered a nationwide suspension of payments and a deep recession, Congress established a commission to look into ways to improve how the banking system responsed to the shocks. The commission’s findings led to the creation of the Federal Reserve System in 1913.

This article is adapted from the Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia’s publication "The Second Bank of the United States: A Chapter in the History of Central Banking." To order print copies of the publication visit https://www.philadelphiafed.org/education/publication-orders

Image of Custom House by J.C. Wild, printed by John T. Bowen, c.1848, courtesy Library Company of Philadelphia, accession number P.2227


Bibliography

Bordo, Michael D., and Joseph G. Haubrich. “Credit Crises, Money, and Contractions: An Historical View.” Journal of Monetary Economics vol. 57, no. 1 (January 2010): pp. 1-18.

Catterall, Ralph C.H. The Second Bank of the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1903.

Hammond, Bray. Banks and Politics in America from the Revolution to the Civil War. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1957.

Kaplan, Edward S. The Bank of the United States and the American Economy. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.

Remini, Robert. Andrew Jackson and the Bank War: A Study in the Growth of Presidential Power. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1967.

Walters, Raymond, Jr. “The Origins of the Second Bank of the United States.” Journal of Political Economy vol. 53, no. 2 (June 1945): pp. 115-31.

Источник: https://www.federalreservehistory.org/essays/second-bank-of-the-us

Our history

Since 2000 Santander Group has acquired Banespa in Brazil, Serfín in Mexico and Banco Santiago in Chile, strengthening its position as the leading financial franchise in Latin America.

In 2003 we established Santander Consumer through the integration of CC-Bank in Germany, Finconsumo in Italy, Hispamer in Spain and other Group companies. The countries where the consumer banking franchise is present now include Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Denmark, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada.

In April 2004 we moved our central services from Madrid to our new corporate headquarters at Santander Group City, which now has a workforce of more than 6,800.

In November of that year, we reached another important milestone: the acquisition of Abbey, the United Kingdom’s sixth-largest bank.

In 2005 we reached an agreement to take a 19.8% stake in Sovereign Bancorp, the United States’ eighteenth-largest bank.

In 2006 we posted a record €7.596 billion profit, the largest of any Spanish company that year, and we greatly boosted our investment in customer banking and service quality. “We want to be your bank” in Spain and other promotional actions in Portugal, Abbey and America are examples of this effort.

In 2007 as we celebrated our 150th anniversary, we were the twelfth largest bank in the world by market capitalisation and the seventh by profit and we boasted the largest retail network in the Western world: 10,852 branches. We formed a banking consortium with The Royal Bank of Scotland and Fortis for the purchase of ABN Amro, through which we were awarded Banco Real in Brazil, doubling our presence in that country.

In 2008 we continued to grow through important acquisitions in the strategic United Kingdom market. We added Alliance & Leicester and Bradford & Bingley, thus reaching 1,300 branches in the country and positioning ourselves as the United Kingdom’s third-largest bank by deposits. Our €8.876 billion in profit made us the third-largest bank in the world in earnings that year.

Источник: https://www.santander.com/en/about-us/our-history

Our company

Investing in securities involves risks, and there is always the potential of losing money when you invest in securities.

This material does not take into account your particular investment objectives, financial situations or needs and is not intended as a recommendation, offer or solicitation for the purchase or sale of any security, financial instrument, or strategy. Before acting on any information in this material, you should consider whether it is suitable for your particular circumstances and, if necessary, seek professional advice. Any opinions expressed herein are given in good faith, are subject to change without notice, and are only correct as of the stated date of their issue.

Content contained herein may have been produced by an outside party that is not affiliated with Bank of America or any of its affiliates (Bank of America). Opinions or ideas expressed are not necessarily those of Bank of America nor do they reflect their views or endorsement. These materials are for informational purposes only. Bank of America does not assume liability for any loss or damage resulting from anyone's reliance on the information provided. Certain links may direct you away from Bank of America to an unaffiliated site. Bank of America has not been involved in the preparation of the content supplied at the unaffiliated sites and does not guarantee or assume any responsibility for its content. When you visit these sites, you are agreeing to all of their terms of use, including their privacy and security policies.

Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated (also referred to as “MLPF&S” or “Merrill”) makes available certain investment products sponsored, managed, distributed or provided by companies that are affiliates of Bank of America Corporation (“BofA Corp.”). MLPF&S is a registered broker-dealer, registered investment adviser, Member SIPC and a wholly owned subsidiary of BofA Corp.

Trust and fiduciary services are provided by Bank of America Private Bank, a division of Bank of America, N.A., Member FDIC, and a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bank of America Corporation (“BofA Corp.”). Insurance and annuity products are offered through Merrill Lynch Life Agency Inc. (“MLLA”), a licensed insurance agency and wholly-owned subsidiary of BofA Corp.

Investment products offered through MLPF&S and insurance and annuity products offered through MLLA:

Are Not FDIC InsuredAre Not Bank GuaranteedMay Lose Value
Are Not DepositsAre Not Insured by Any Governmental AgencyAre Not a Condition to Any Banking Service or Activity



"Bank of America" is the marketing name for the global banking and global markets business of Bank of America Corporation. Lending, derivatives, and other commercial banking activities are performed globally by banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation, including Bank of America, N.A., Member FDIC. Securities, strategic advisory, and other investment banking activities are performed globally by investment banking affiliates of Bank of America Corporation ("Investment Banking Affiliates"), including, in the United States, BofA Securities, Inc., Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated, and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp., all of which are registered broker-dealers and Members of SIPC, and, in other jurisdictions, by locally registered entities. BofA Securities, Inc., Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Smith Incorporated and Merrill Lynch Professional Clearing Corp. are registered as futures commission merchants with the CFTC and are members of the NFA.

Company goals are aspirational and not guarantees or promises that all goals will be met. Statistics and metrics included in our ESG documents are estimates and may be based on assumptions or developing standards.

Источник: https://about.bankofamerica.com/en/our-company

Top 10 Bank Logos Explained

How do we decide which bank to trust with our hard-earned money?  Is there visual science that makes us feel safe and secure? Does the logo really matter in branding of a financial institution?

Best Bank Logos

  1. Bank of America
  2. Chase Bank
  3. Citi Bank
  4. TD Bank
  5. Deutsche Bank
  6. ING Bank
  7. Societe General
  8. UBS Bank
  9. Raiffeisen Bank
  10. Getin Bank

A bank’s visual identity: it’s logo, colors and typography must present the company as trustworthy and professional – this is imperative.

In this article I talk about best bank branding examples.

Banks face a particular challenge when it comes to branding bank of america logo history the subjects of money is sensitive, therefore branding for banks is particularly important.

If your financial institution logo looks unprofessional you won’t project the right image and connect with your customers.

In this article I describe some of the most popular bank logos.

Colors

Never does a color play such a significant role as in the logo of a financial institution.

Most of the banks opt for blue as their primary color.

This is by no means a coincidence, according to color psychology, blue instils sort of serenity and reliability in people.

It’s conservative and bank of america logo history, thus appropriate to branding a company that handle people's finances.

Typography

Typography can really manipulate the significance of what it communicates.

Due to its effects on the context of communication, the right font can make wonders.

Simple sans-serif fonts is what most banks opt for.

Choosing the right typeface can communicate your brand's strengths and also increase your brand's memorability.

Symbolism

It is important to know what an individual form means and how our brains read them.

Square shapes convey feeling of solidity and stability.

If we are talking about the popularity of various shapes, we can say that a rectangle is the most popular shape in branding of banks.

Let's look at some of the top banks and their logos:

1. Bank of America

Bank of America's name is self explanatory, it's an American multinational investment bank and financial services company.

The colors are taken from the US flag and evoke feelings of patriotism.

The mark symbolizes American flag and farm field.

The logo taps into the nations patriotic feelings as well as to cement the fact that bank is a wholly American institution.

Bank of America logo explained

Why farmer's field? - many farmers trust and work with the bank and the image was meant to resound with them.

See the logo in use:

uk phone country code from usa logo was introduced in 2001 after the bank restructured.

2. Chase Bank

Chase Bank is a national bank headquartered in Manhattan, New York City.What's the Chase Bank logo meaning?

This powerful octagonal-geometric form was perhaps the first abstract symbol used in modern banking.

The abstract shape embodies feelings of motion and activity.

The form is divided in such a way as to suggest forward motion within the framework of control.

Chase Bank logo explained

The activity is centered around the square, implying growth from a central foundation.See the logo in use:

The Chase Bank logo was designed in 1961 by a CGH, a New York based design studio.

Also check the Chase bank logo sketch in my other article.

3. Citi Bank

Citibank was founded in 1812 as the City Bank of New York and later become national bank.

The name is written in blue letters, and a red arc caps the "t" letter.

The umbrella secures customers from financial upheavals.

The arc is a simplified umbrella image borrowed from the logo of Travelers Group - one of the merging companies)

Citi Bank logo explained

The blue color stands for trust; the red color stands for passion.

See the logo in use:

The Citi Bank logo was designed by Paula Scher on a napkin and cost $1,5m.

Also check the Citi bank logo sketch in my other article.

4. TD Bank

The bank’s “TD” initials stand for Toronto-Dominion Bank and it’s a Canadian bank that expanded to the United States in 2008.

The ligature symbolizes connection and coherence.

Squares signify the idea of an enclosure, home, and settlement; the green color symbolizes money and vitality.

TD Bank logo explained

The square is the most "stable" form of visual language and it represents an order and discipline.

See the logo in use:

The green color and distinctive symbol makes TD bank visible from far as practically no-other bank in America uses anything similar.

5. Deutsche Bank

Deutsche Bank AG is a German investment bank and financial services company headquartered in Frankfurt, Hesse, Germany.

The combination of slash and square is a long-established symbol of the Western economy.

What's the Deutsche Bank logo meaning?

The “slash” stands for consistent growth, the square for stability.

Squares are commonly used in banking logo design in order to built trust and stability and this logo is perhaps the best example of it.

Deautsche Bank logo explained

It's simplicity and uniqueness makes it to just burn into your mind.

German bank logos are pretty straightforward and minimalist.See the logo in use:

The Deutsche Bank logo was designed by Antony Stankowsky in 1972.

6. ING Bank

The ING Group is a Dutch multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Amsterdam.

The lion goes way back to ING’s Dutch roots - lion is the country’s national symbol.

The lion symbolizes strength, courage and authority.

The orange color is the national color of Netherlands where the banks if from.

ING Bank logo explained

Orange stands for energy and vitality according to the psychology of color.

See the logo in use:

The ING name stands for "Internationale Nederlanden Groep" in dutch.

Read more about the history of ING brand.

7. Societe General

Societe General is a French multinational investment bank and financial services company headquartered in Paris, France - this is the only french bank logo I talk about in here.

The square evokes solidity, strength and rigor while the color contrast indicates the balanced relationship between the bank and its clients.

The two halves stand for harmony and the white bar for openness.

Red, which is bright and dynamic, is associated with passion and emotion, while black is the color of solemnity, seriousness, and institutions.

Societe Generale logo explained

The larger typeset suggests the bank's capacity for flexibility and adaptation.

All caps stand for leadership and authority.

The current logo was designed in 1989 by Sopha, a design agency owned by the RSCG group.

Read more about the history of Societe Generale logo on the bank's website.

8. UBS Bank

UBS Group AG is a Swiss multinational investment bank and financial services company founded and based in Switzerland.

UBS is a bank from Switzerland that features three keys in its logo.

The keys stand for the company's values of confidence, security, and discretion.

What's the UBS logo meaning? T

he three keys bear a traditional meaning - they unlock the doors to wealth, health and luck according to the historical belief.

UBS Bank logo explained

See the logo in use:

The UBS logo is very unique in every aspect of it, starting with the serif font, red color and keys symbol that no-other financial institution used before.

9. Raiffeisen Bank

The symbol used in the Raiffeisen bank logo is called the Gable Cross.

The two crossed horde heads symbolize protection and safety.

This symbol that inspired the logo has a traditional meaning and was used on the roofs of European houses.

Raiffeisen Bank logo explained

According to the belief the roof gable was to protect the occupants against all dangers.

See the logo in use:

The Gable Cross was chosen as a trademark in 1877 – when Friedrich Wilhelm Raiffeisen (the founder) was still alive.

10. Getin Bank

The branding of Gettin Bank is quite fresh and it sort of breaks with boring squares and blue in banking logos.

It's a perfect example of a modern bank logo.

The arrow symbolizes forward moving and call to action.

An arrow symbol in banking is kind of refreshing and unique.It also works great with the name.

GetIn Bank logo explained

The fresh green makes the logo stand out among competitors - who else uses blue in banking?

See the logo in use:

Gettin Bank is a small polish bank, but I decided to include it in my list, just to show you that a banking logo doesn't have to be boring.

Logos of Banks - Conclusions

Make no mistake: your financial institution’s logo and brand identity is one of the most powerful (if not subtle) weapons in your marketing arsenal.

By describing logos of different banks my goal was to make you aware of the importance of branding a bank or financial institution – it’s always good to learn form the best!

Do not underestimate the impact it has — whether positive or negative — on people’s perception and your bottom line.

Logo and colors must present the bank as trustworthy and professional.

A logo is the heart and soul of your bank, the image that differentiates you from other financial institutions.

But logo is just a part of the story and logo alone is not a brand.

Before jumping right into designing your logo, you should work on your brand strategy first and define who first united methodist church of coral gables are and who you want to connect with.

Are you looking to hire for your brank branding? — Start a project here

Источник: https://www.ebaqdesign.com/blog/bank-logos

3 December 2021

WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2621

Firm expectations and economic activity

English

Abstract
We assess how firm expectations about future production impact current production and pricing decisions. Our analysis is based on a large survey of firms in the German manufacturing sector. To identify the causal effect of expectations, we rely on the timing of survey responses and match firms with the same fundamentals but different views about the future. Firms that expect their production to increase (decrease) in the future are 15 percentage points more (less) likely to raise current production and prices, compared to firms that expect no change in production. In a second step, we show that expectations also matter even if they turn out to be incorrect. Lastly, we aggregate expectation errors across firms and find that they account for about 15 percent of aggregate fluctuations.
JEL Code
E32 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles→Business Fluctuations, Cycles
D84 : Microeconomics→Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty→Expectations, Speculations
E71 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics

3 December 2021

LEGAL WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 21

Climate change litigation and central banks

English

Abstract
Given the urgent need to dramatically reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and concern regarding insufficient climate action and ambition across the globe, NGOs and individuals are increasingly turning to the courts to force States, public authorities, and private entities to increase their climate action and ambition and hold them accountable through climate-related litigation. The three contributions in this legal working paper discuss various aspects of such climate change litigation around the world. The papers examine the evolution of climate-related cases, the scope of such cases and the varying grounds on which they have been based. They also focus in some detail on certain key judgments addressing novel issues, as well as a recent climate-related case brought against a national central bank. The papers were originally presented at the Legal Colloquium on “Climate change litigation and central banks – Action for the environment”, organised by the European Central Bank on 27 May 2021.
JEL Code
K32 : Law and Economics→Other Substantive Areas of Law→Environmental, Health, and Safety Law
K33 : Law and Economics→Other Substantive Areas of Law→International Law
K39 : Law and Economics→Other Substantive Areas of Law→Other
K41 : Law and Economics→Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior→Litigation Process
Q54 : Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Environmental and Ecological Economics→Environmental Economics→Climate, Natural Disasters, Global Warming

2 December 2021

OTHER PUBLICATION

Eurosystem reply to the Communication from the European Commission “The EU economy after COVID-19: implications for economic governance” of 19 October 2021

English

2 December 2021

WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2620

Macroeconomic reversal rate in a low interest rate environment

English

Abstract
This paper investigates how the monetary policy transmission channels change once the economy is in a low interest rate environment. We estimate a nonlinear model for the euro area and its five largest countries over the period 1999q2-2019q1 and allow for the effects of monetary policy shocks to be state dependent. Using smooth transition local projections, we examine the impulse responses bank of america logo history investment, savings, consumption, and the output gap to an expansionary monetary policy shock under normal and low interest rate regimes. We find evidence for a macroeconomic reversal rate related to the substitution effects becoming weaker relative to the income effects in a low interest rate regime. In this regime the effects of monetary policy shocks are either less powerful or reverse sign compared with a normal rate regime.
JEL Code
E21 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Consumption, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy→Consumption, Saving, Wealth
E22 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Bank of america logo history, Saving, Production, Investment, Labor Markets, and Informal Economy→Capital, Investment, Capacity
E43 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
E52 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Monetary Policy

2 December 2021

WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2619

Addressing the endogeneity of slack in Phillips Curves

English

Abstract
Endogeneity of the labour market slack in reduced-form Phillips Curves (PCs) is usually addressed either by including proxies for omitted supply shocks, or by using instrumental variables. Using the Kiviet (2020) Kinky Least Squares estimator, we find evidence that supply-shock proxies should not be omitted from PCs, and that many popular instrumental variables seem to be invalid. We estimate a standard backward-looking wage Phillips Curve by Kinky Least Squares and find that unless a large bank of america logo history correlation between the slack variable and the error term is assumed, the coefficient of the slack variable is significantly negative.
JEL Code
C1 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General
E3 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles

1 December 2021

OTHER PUBLICATION

Opinion of the European Central Bank of 30 November 2021 on a proposal for a regulation to extend traceability requirements to transfers of crypto-assets (CON/2021/37)

English

1 December 2021

WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2618

What are banks’ actual capital targets?

English

Abstract
How do banks set their target capital ratio? How do they adjust to reach it? This paper answers these questions using an original dataset of capital ratio targets directly announced to investors by European banks, materially improving data quality compared to usual estimated implicit target. It provides the following key lessons. First, targets are affected by capital requirements and a procyclical behavior consistent with market pressure. Second, banks do not distinguish between the different types of capital requirements for setting their targets, food pantry cabinet weak usability of the regulatory buffers. Third, the distance between actual CET1 ratio and the target is a valuable predictor of future balance-sheet adjustment, suggesting that banks actively drive their capital ratios toward their announced targets, through capital accumulation and portfolio rebalancing. Fourth, this adjustment occurs both above and below targets, but banks below target adjust faster, suggesting stronger pressure. These results provide important lessons for policymakers regarding the design of the prudential framework and the effectiveness of countercyclical policies.
JEL Code
E51 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Money Supply, Credit, Money Multipliers
E58 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Central Banks and Their Policies
G21 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→Banks, Depository Institutions, Micro Finance Institutions, Mortgages
G28 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→Government Policy and Regulation

1 December 2021

OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES - No. 286

Central Bank Digital Currency: functional scope, pricing and controls

English

Abstract
Even before their deployment in major economies, one of the concerns that has been voiced about central bank digital currency (CBDC) is that it might be too successful and lead to bank disintermediation, which could intensify further in the case of a banking crisis. Some also argue that CBDC might crowd out private payment solutions beyond what would be desirable from the perspective of the comparative advantages of private and public sector money. This paper discusses success factors for CBDC and how to avoid the risk of crowding out. After examining ways to prevent excessive use as a store of value, the study emphasises the importance of the functional scope of CBDC for the payment functions of money. The paper also recalls the risks that use could be too low if functional scope, convenience or reachability are unattractive for users. Finding an adequate functional scope – neither too broad to crowd out private sector solutions, nor too narrow to be of limited use – is challenging in an industry with network effects, like payments. The role of the incentives offered to private sector service providers involved in distributing, using and processing CBDC (banks, wallet providers, merchants, payment processors, acquirers, etc.) is discussed, including fees and compensation.
JEL Code
E3 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles
E5 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
G1 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets

29 November 2021

SURVEY OF MONETARY ANALYSTS

ECB Survey of Monetary Analysts (SMA), December 2021

English

26 November 2021

WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2617

Markups and inflation cyclicality in the euro area

English

Abstract
Price inflation in the euro area has been stable and low since the Global Financial Crisis, despite notable changes in output and unemployment. We show that an increasing share of high markup firms is part of the explanation of why inflation remained stubbornly stable and low in the euro area over the past two decades. For this purpose, we exploit a rich firm-level database to show that over the period 1995–2018 the aggregate markup in bmo harris bank janesville wi hours euro area has been on the rise, mainly on account of a reallocation towards high-markup firms. We document significant heterogeneity in markups across sectors and countries and, by linking these markup developments uk phone country code from usa the evolution of sectoral level producer and consumer price inflation, we find that (i) inflation in high-markup sectors tends to be less volatile than in low-markup sectors and (ii) inflation in high-markup sectors responds significantly less to oil supply, global demand and euro area monetary policy shocks.
JEL Code
D2 : Microeconomics→Production and Organizations
D4 : Microeconomics→Market Structure and Pricing
N1 : Economic History→Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics, Industrial Structure, Growth, Fluctuations
O3 : Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth→Technological Change, Research and Development, Intellectual Property Rights
Network
Price Micro Setting Analysis Network (PRISMA)

25 November 2021

WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2616

Nowcasting euro area GDP with news sentiment: a tale of two crises

English

Abstract
This paper shows that newspaper articles contain timely economic signals that can materially improve nowcasts of real GDP growth for the euro area. Our text data is drawn from fifteen san bernardino county west valley detention center European newspapers, that collectively represent the four largest Euro area economies, and are machine translated into English. Daily sentiment metrics are created from these news articles and we assess their value for nowcasting. By comparing to competitive and rigorous benchmarks, we find that newspaper text is helpful in nowcasting GDP growth especially in the first half of the quarter when other lower-frequency soft indicators are not available. The choice of the sentiment measure matters bank of america logo history tracking economic shocks such as the Great Recession and the Great Lockdown. Non-linear machine learning models can help capture extreme movements in growth, but require sufficient training data in order to be effective so become more useful later in our sample.
JEL Code
C43 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics→Index Numbers and Aggregation
C45 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics→Neural Networks and Related Topics
C55 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Econometric Modeling→Modeling with Large Data Sets?
C82 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology, Computer Programs→Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Macroeconomic Data, Data Access
E37 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles→Forecasting and Simulation: Models and Applications

25 November 2021

WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2615

Quantitative easing and corporate innovation

English

Abstract
To what extent can Quantitative Easing impact productivity growth? We document a strong and heterogeneous response of corporate R&D investment to changes in debt financing conditions induced by corporate debt purchases under the ECB’s Corporate Sector Purchase Program. Companies eligible for the program increase significantly their investment in R&D, relative to similar ineligible companies operating in the same country and sector. The evidence further suggests that by subsidizing the cost of debt, corporate bond purchases by the central bank stimulate innovation through a wealth transfer to innovative companies with low debt bank of america logo history, rather than by supporting credit constrained firms.
JEL Code
E5 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit
G10 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→General
O3 : Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth→Technological Change, Research and Development, Intellectual Property Rights

24 November 2021

OCCASIONAL PAPER SERIES - No. 285

To be or not to be “green”: how can monetary policy react to climate change?

English

Abstract
Climate change has profound effects not only for societies and economies, but also for central banks’ ability to deliver price stability in the future. This paper starts by documenting why climate change matters for monetary policy: san jose state university ranking impacts the economic variables relevant to setting the monetary policy stance, it interacts with fiscal and structural responses and it can generate dislocations in financial markets, which are impossible for monetary policy to ignore. Next, we survey several possible ways central banks can respond to climate change. These range from protective actions to more proactive measures aimed at mitigating climate change and supporting green finance and the transition to sustainable growth. We also discuss the constraints and trade-offs faced by central banks as they respond to climate risks. Finally, focusing on the specific challenges faced by inflation-targeting central banks, we consider how certain design features of this regime might interact with, and evolve in response to, the climate challenge.
JEL Code
E52 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Monetary Policy
E58 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Central Banks and Their Policies
Q54 : Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics, Environmental and Ecological Economics→Environmental Economics→Climate, Natural Disasters, Global Warming

24 November 2021

SURVEY ON THE ACCESS TO FINANCE OF ENTERPRISES IN THE EURO AREA

Survey on the Access to Finance of Enterprises in the euro area - April to September 2021

English

English

24 November 2021

RESEARCH BULLETIN - No. 89

Bank leverage constraints and bond market illiquidity during the COVID-19 crisis

English

English

Abstract
The outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic led to heightened uncertainty and a “dash-for-cash” in March 2020. Investors moved out of risky assets and into safe assets. The mutual fund sector in particular was hit by unprecedented investor redemptions and faced fire sale pressure as a result. Typically, banks that engage in securities trading – dealer banks – absorb such bond sales, supporting market liquidity, but regulation may limit their ability to do so walgreens mankato front st requiring them to maintain a certain leverage ratio. In recent research, we analyse the role of bank leverage constraints as an amplifier of bond market illiquidity during the March 2020 crisis. Our analysis links mutual funds bond holdings to dealer banks and their leverage constraints. We document that mutual funds that were holding more bonds exposed to dealer bank constraints in their portfolio faced bigger selling pressure in March 2020. We provide supplementary evidence that bank leverage constraints affect bond liquidity, using the introduction of leverage ratio regulation in the euro area.
JEL Code
G12 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→Asset Pricing, Trading Volume, Bond Interest Rates
G18 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→Government Policy and Regulation
G21 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→Banks, Depository Institutions, Micro Finance Institutions, Mortgages

22 November 2021

WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2614

Credit growth, the yield curve and financial crisis prediction: evidence from a machine learning approach

English

Abstract
We develop early warning models for financial crisis prediction by applying machine learning techniques to macrofinancial data for 17 countries over 1870–2016. Most nonlin-ear machine learning models outperform logistic regression in out-of-sample predictions and forecasting. We identify economic drivers of our machine learning models using a novel framework based on Shapley values, uncovering nonlinear relationships between the predic-tors and crisis risk. Throughout, the most important predictors are credit growth and the slope of the yield curve, both domestically and globally. A flat or inverted yield curve is of most concern when nominal interest rates are low and credit growth is high.
JEL Code
C40 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics→General
C53 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Econometric Modeling→Forecasting and Prediction Methods, Simulation Methods
E44 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
F30 : International Economics→International Finance→General
G01 : Financial Economics→General→Financial Crises

19 November 2021

WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2613

What goes around comes around: How large are spillbacks from US monetary policy?

English

Abstract
We quantify spillbacks from US monetary policy based on structural scenario analysis and minimum relative entropy methods applied in a Bayesian proxy structural vector-autoregressive model estimated on data for the time period from 1990 to 2019. We find that spillbacks account for a non-trivial share of the overall slowdown in domestic real activity in response to a contractionary US monetary policy shock. Our analysis suggests that spillbacks materialise as Tobin’s q/cash flow and stock market wealth effects impinge on US investment and consumption. Contractionary US monetary policy depresses foreign sales of US firms, which reduces their valuations/cash flows and thereby induces cutbacks in investment. Similarly, as contractionary US monetary policy depresses US and foreign equity prices, the value of US households’ portfolios is reduced, which triggers a drop in consumption. Net trade does not contribute to spillbacks because US monetary policy affects exports and imports similarly. Finally, spillbacks materialise through advanced rather than emerging market economies, consistent with their relative importance in US firms’ foreign demand and US foreign equity holdings.
JEL Code
F42 : International Economics→Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance→International Policy Coordination and Transmission
E52 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Monetary Policy
C50 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Econometric Modeling→General

18 November 2021

WORKING PAPER SERIES - No. 2612

Natural rate chimera and bond pricing reality

English

Abstract
We build a novel macro-finance model that combines a semi-structural macroeconomic module with arbitrage-free yield-curve dynamics. We estimate it for the United States and the euro area using a Bayesian approach and jointly infer the real equilibrium interest rate (r*), trend inflation (π*), and term premia. Similar to Bauer and Rudebusch (2020, AER), π* and r* constitute a time-varying trend for the nominal short-term rate in our model, rendering estimated term premia more stable than standard yield curve models operating with time-invariant means. In line with the literature, our r* estimates display a distinct decline over the last four decades.
JEL Code
C11 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General→Bayesian Analysis: General
C32 : Mathematical and Quantitative Methods→Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models, Multiple Variables→Time-Series Models, Dynamic Quantile Regressions, Dynamic Treatment Effect Models, Diffusion Processes
E43 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
G12 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→Asset Pricing, Trading Volume, Bond Interest Rates
E44 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Money and Interest Rates→Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
E52 : Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics→Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit→Monetary Icici bank one time password generation online November 2021

FINANCIAL STABILITY REVIEW

Financial Stability Review, November 2021

English

English

17 November 2021

FINANCIAL STABILITY REVIEW - BOX

Sustainability of recent euro area investment banking strength and debt capital market intermediation

Financial Stability Review Issue 2, 2021

English

Abstract
Investment banking revenues have contributed markedly to the recent increase in euro area banks’ non-interest income growth and the rebound in bank profitability. Internationally, equity capital market (ECM) revenue has doubled in the last three years, while debt capital market (DCM) and merger and acquisition (M&A) revenue has increased by chase online bill pay customer service 50%, with only syndicated lending remaining more subdued. In the euro area, however, the most significant volume increase has come from debt instruments, which have long been the preferred source of corporate funding in the euro area ahead of equity. Despite the international growth in capital market volumes, market commentary before the pandemic suggested that investment banking was the “problem child” of European bank of america logo history, with many large banks retreating from various market segments as they faced the fallout from the global financial crisis. Against this background, this box considers the recent developments in investment banking of euro area banks in relation to some of the prior trends and considers how sustainable the recent strength might be.
JEL Code
G12 : Financial Economics→General Financial Markets→Asset Pricing, Trading Volume, Bond Interest Rates
G21 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→Banks, Depository Institutions, Micro Finance Institutions, Mortgages
G24 : Financial Economics→Financial Institutions and Services→Investment Banking, Venture Capital, Brokerage, Ratings and Ratings Agencies
:
Источник: https://www.ecb.europa.eu/
bank of america logo history
bank of america logo history
bank of america logo history

2 Replies to “Bank of america logo history”

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *