1st degree burn on foot

first-degree burns: red, nonblistered skin; second-degree burns: blisters and some thickening of the skin; third-degree burns. First degree burns: These burns are basically like a sun burn where Second degree burns: This type of burn blisters and sometimes can. First-Degree Burn – are burns which involve the outer most layer of skin and are usually blisters, and swelling in and around the area of injury.
1st degree burn on foot

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Burns: Classification and Treatment

1st degree burn on foot -

How to treat a first-degree, minor burn

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Источник: https://www.aad.org/public/everyday-care/injured-skin/burns/treat-minor-burns

Burns - When to Seek Care?

Whether you stayed too long at the beach or got a little careless at the BBQ, burns can be a painful part of anyone’s summer. Some burns you can take care of at home with some common sense and first aid; other burns can be quite serious and require medical attention.

So how do you know? Here are some general tips to help you decide when to seek care:

How Big is the Burn?

In general, the bigger the burn, the more serious it can be. Clinicians will describe burn size as a percent of your total Body Surface Area (BSA) –this is the standard way of estimating how much of your skin has been burned.

For most adults the surface area of your palm (not fingers or wrist) is equal to 1% of your skin surface – so you can tell at home how big the burn is by seeing how many “palms” it takes to cover the whole burn. So, four palms = 4% BSA burned. In general, any burn that is more than 3% of your BSA in adults and > 2% in children, will need medical attention right away.

How Deep is the Burn?

Burns are also classified by how “deep” they have penetrated tissue. The higher the number, the deeper and potentially more serious the burn.

  • First-degree (superficial) burns. First-degree burns affect only the outer layer of skin (the epidermis). The burn site is red, painful, dry, and with no blisters. Mild sunburn is an example.
  • Second-degree (partial thickness) burns. Second-degree burns involve the epidermis and part of the lower layer of skin, the dermis. The burn site looks red, blistered, and may be swollen and painful.
  • Third-degree (full thickness) burns. Third-degree burns destroy the epidermis and dermis. They may go into the innermost layer of skin, the subcutaneous tissue. The burn site may look white or blackened and charred.
  • Fourth-degree burns. Fourth-degree burns go through both layers of the skin and underlying tissue as well as deeper tissue, possibly involving muscle and bone. There is no feeling in the area since the nerve endings are destroyed.

Any burn that is second degree or greater will need medical attention right away!

Where is the Burn?

This is another important factor to consider when evaluating a burn. Certain locations on the body are more susceptible to infection, are harder to care for, or have other anatomical considerations that make treatment challenging. These include: Face, hands, feet, genitals, any burns that are "circumferential" -meaning that they go all the way around the limb or digit. Finally, burns that cross over a joint (wrist, elbow, knee, spine etc.) can require additional care to prevent complications down the road.

Any complicated burn should be seen by medical provider right away.

Who was burned?

This is also an important factor in burn injury outcomes. Older patients, infants or toddlers, diabetics, and those with other chronic medical conditions may have prolonged healing and/or poorer outcomes, so would more likely need to be seen by a healthcare provider early on.

Higher risk patients should seek medical attention right away.

Home vs Urgent Care vs Emergency Room for Burns?

As discussed above, any large burns or burns that are 2nd degree or more, will need medical care right away. If you have any doubt about whether the burn is large or deep, it is best to see a health care provider. Third- and fourth-degree burns are best suited for the emergency room, while second-degree burns may be cared for at an urgent care center. Burn patients will also need pain control, possibly a tetanus booster and sometimes even a referral to a burn center. First-degree burns are usually treated with home care. Healing time may be quicker the sooner you treat the burn. Treatments for a first-degree burn include:

  • Soaking the wound in cool water for five minutes or longer
  • Taking acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain relief
  • Applying aloe vera gel or cream to soothe the skin
  • Using an antibiotic ointment and loose gauze to protect the affected area

Make sure you don’t use ice, as this may make the damage worse. Also, avoid home remedies like butter, mayonnaise, or eggs as these are not proven to be effective. Most UCCs can provide initial care for first- and second-degree burns.

Any large or serious burns (> 10 % BSA or 3rd degree or higher) will typically need to be seen in an Emergency Department and may require referral to a burn center. In general, the major issues when treating burns are pain control, preventing infection, and achieving a good cosmetic outcome. If there are signs of skin infection, such as increasing redness, pain, pus-like discharge, or temperature greater than 100.4ºF or 38ºC, you should seek medical attention right away.

Treating Burns with Blisters

For burns with closed blisters:

  • Flush the burn with cool running water or put cold moist cloths on the burn until there is less pain. Don’t use ice or ice water, which can cause more damage to the skin.
  • Remove jewelry or tight clothing from the burned area right away before the skin begins to swell. If you cannot do this, most urgent care centers and emergency departments have special tools for removing jewelry or clothing.
  • Try not to break the blisters. If the blisters break, it’s easier for the burn to get infected.

For burns with open blisters:

  • Don’t remove clothing if it is stuck to the burn.
  • Run cool water over the burn unless the burn is several inches in size. Running water over a large burn might increase the risk of shock

Special Burn Cases

Chemical Burns: follow these first-aid steps while making sure to avoid more contact with the chemical:

  • Immediately remove any clothing and jewelry on which the chemical has spilled.
  • Flush liquid chemicals from the skin thoroughly with running water for at least 15 minutes. Be sure to avoid splashing the chemical in your eyes. After flushing, call the local Poison Control Center for advice about the specific chemical that burned you, or have someone else call while you are rinsing off the chemical. It helps to have the chemical container with you when you make the call to make sure you give the correct name for the chemical.
  • Brush dry chemicals off the skin if large amounts of water are not available. Small amounts of water will activate some chemicals, such as lime, and cause more damage, so keep dry chemicals dry unless very large amounts of water are available. Be careful not to get any chemicals in the eyes.
  • Don’t try to neutralize a chemical. For example, putting an alkali chemical onto skin that has been exposed to an acid will often produce a large amount of heat and may increase the burning.
  • Once all of the chemical has been removed, cover the burn with a sterile or clean, loose, dry bandage and get medical care immediately.

For electrical burns:

  • All electrical burns must be examined promptly by a healthcare provider. An electrical burn may seem to have caused just minor damage, but it can go deep into tissues under the skin. The damage may not be obvious for several hours or even until the next day. Delayed treatment can cause more damage.
  • Cover the area of the burn with a clean (sterile, if possible), dry bandage, such as a gauze pad. Wrap it loosely. Don’t put any ointments or other substances on the burned area.

Sources:

https://www.uptodate.com/contents/skin-burns-beyond-the-basics

http://ameriburn.org/

Источник: https://www.gohealthuc.com/library/burns-treatment-care

Gently cleansing your skin after a first- or second-degree burn is also important. The key word here though is gently, Zeichner stresses. "Especially after leaving the beach, you may want to scrub the skin to remove dirt, sand, oil, and sunscreen," he explains. "But overly scrubbing the skin, which is already weakened from a sunburn, can cause more harm than good."

To safely clean your burn stay away from any exfoliating cleansers and harsh soaps, which have an alkaline pH and can be irritating, Zeichner explains. "Instead look for gentle, hydrating, soap-free cleansers like Dove Deep Moisture Nourishing Body Wash that effectively cleanse the skin and hydrate at the same time — without causing more damage to the outer skin layer."

Finally, you want to make sure to keep scorched skin moist. Since a burn disrupts the skin barrier, it can become extra dry and sensitive as it heals. The remedy? Keep it moist with aloe vera gel or a light petroleum-based lotion. Zeichner recommends Vaseline Intensive Care Advanced Repair Lotion to help seal in moisture.

For a mild second-degree burn, you can treat it pretty much the same way you would a first-degree burn. But as it heals, the experts say it's important to pay closer attention to spot signs of infection. You have to be especially careful with the blisters. "If the blister is large, and you feel up to it, you can try to drain it," says Zeichner.

To do this, grab some rubbing alcohol and sterilize the blister and surrounding skin. Using a sewing needle, which should also be sterilized with rubbing alcohol, gently poke the side of the blister, Zeichner says. Gently press on the blister to drain the fluid. After you pop the blister, apply an antibiotic cream and, whatever you do, make sure not to rip any of this skin off. This can up your chances of infection.

"Since second-degree burns are more severe, I recommend a heavier ointment to protect the sensitive or blistered skin," Zeichner says. Try CeraVe Healing Ointment. With a more serious second-degree burn — one that covers a large area, is incredibly blistered or painful, or is in a tough to treat position such as your hand or the back of your legs — see a doctor.

Источник: https://www.allure.com/story/what-burns-look-like-degrees-photo-guide
 

Burns can result from dry heat (fire), moist heat (steam, hot liquids), electricity, chemicals, and radiation (i.e., sunlight). Treatment for burns depends on:

  • The depth of the burn (whether it is first, second, or third degree).
  • How much area of the body is affected.
  • The location of the burn.

First degree burns affect only the outer skin layer. The area appears dry, red, and mildly swollen. A first degree burn is painful and sensitive to touch. Mild sunburn and brief contact with a heat source such as a hot iron are examples of first degree burns. First degree burns should feel better within a day or two. They should heal in about a week if there are no other problems. (See "First Aid Procedures for First Degree Burns".)

Second degree burns affect the skin's lower layers as well as the outer skin. They are painful, swollen, and show redness and blisters. The skin also develops a weepy, watery surface. Examples of second degree burns are severe sunburn, burns caused by hot liquids and a flash from gasoline. First aid procedures can be used to treat many second degree burns depending on their location and how much area is affected. (See "Questions to Ask" and "First Aid Procedures for Second Degree Burns".)

Third degree burns affect the outer and deeper skin layers as well as any underlying tissue and organs. They appear black and white and charred. The skin is swollen and underlying tissue is often exposed. The pain felt with third degree burns may be less than with first or second degree burns. There can also be no pain at all when nerve endings are destroyed. Pain may be felt around the margin of the affected area, however. Third degree burns usually result from electric shocks, burning clothes, severe gasoline fires and the like. They always require emergency treatment. They may result in hospitalization and sometimes require skin grafts.

Questions to Ask

Is the burn a third degree burn? (Is there absence of pain, charred, black and white skin, and exposure of tissue under the skin?) Or a second degree burn that is on the face, hands, feet, genitals or on any joint (elbow, knee, shoulder, etc.)?Yes: Seek CareGive First Aid
No

Get Emergency Care and give first aid before emergency care:

  • Stop the burn source. For example, turn off electric current, "stop, drop and roll" on the floor or ground or douse with cold water or wrap the victim in a cotton blanket or rug to put out flames.
  • Monitor for breathing and pulse (see "CPR"). and shock (see "Shock".)
  • Remove clothing, but only if it doesn't stick to burned area. Cut unstuck clothing away. Don't pull it off.
  • Remove jewelry, if you can.
  • If the arm(s) or leg(s) are burned, elevate them above heart level. If the burn is on the face, sit up or have the victim sit up.
  • Cool the burned skin with cool water, not ice. Don't use cold water on large, third degree burns. Don't immerse in ice water. Use cold cloth compresses on burns of the hands, feet and face, but don't leave on longer than 15-20 minutes.
  • Cover the burned area with a clean cloth or sterile dressing. Don't use plastic.
  • Don't apply any type of ointment, cream, butter or antiseptic sprays on the burn.
  • Calm the victim.
  • Don't give the victim anything to drink or eat.
Is the burn a second degree burn that has affected more than the outer skin layer, shows signs of blistering and is extensive (covers more than 3 inches in diameter of the skin)?Yes:See DoctorGive First Aid
No
See Doctor and give first aid procedures before seeing the doctor:
  • Cool the burned area with either cold running water, or a wet, cold compress. Do this for at least 10 minutes and up to 45 minutes. Don't put ice directly on the burned area. If it is the only cold source available, only use it for 10 to 15 minutes.
  • Give aspirin, ibuprofen or naproxen sodium for pain and inflammation. Acetaminophen will help with pain, but not with inflammation. (Note: Do not give aspirin or any medication containing salicylates to anyone under 19 years of age or younger unless a doctor tells you to.)
  • If the arm(s) or leg(s) are burned, elevate them above heart level.
  • Cover the burned area with a clear cloth or sterile dressing. Don't use plastic.
Is the burn a second degree burn that covers less than 3 inches of the skin, occur in an infant or a young child?Yes:See DoctorGive First Aid
No
Yes - See Doctor and give first aid procedures for second degree burns below.
Give First Aid
 

First Aid

For First Degree Burns:

  • Cool the area right away. Place the affected area in a container of cold water or under cold running water. Do this for at least 5 - 10 minutes or until the pain is relieved. This will also reduce the amount of skin damage. (If the affected area is dirty, gently wash it with soapy water first.)
  • Do not apply ice or cold water for too long a time. This may result in complete numbness leading to frostbite.
  • Keep the area uncovered and elevated, if possible. Apply a dry dressing, if necessary.
  • Do not use butter or other ointments (Example: Vaseline).
  • Avoid using local anesthetic sprays and creams. They can slow healing and may lead to allergic reactions in some people.
  • Call your doctor if after 2 days you show signs of infection (fever of 101 degrees F or higher, chills, increased redness, swelling, or pus in the infected area) or if the affected area is still painful.
  • Take aspirin, acetaminophen, or ibuprofen, or naproxen sodium to relieve pain. (Note: Do not give aspirin or any medication containing salicylates to anyone 19 years of age or younger, unless a doctor tells you to.)

For Second Degree Burns (that are not extensive and less than 3" in diameter):

  • Immerse the affected area in cold (not ice) water until the pain subsides.
  • Dip clean cloths in cold water, wring them out and apply them over and over again to the burned area for as long as an hour. Blot the area dry. Do not rub.
  • Do not break any blisters that have formed.
  • Avoid applying antiseptic sprays, ointments, and creams.
  • Once dried, dress the area with a single layer of loose gauze that does not stick to the skin. Hold in place with bandage tape that is placed well away from the burned area.
  • Change the dressing the next day and every two days after that.
  • Prop the burnt area higher than the rest of the body, if possible.
  • Call your doctor if there are signs of infection (fever of 101 degrees F or higher, chills, increased redness and swelling, and pus) or if the burn shows no sign of improvement after 2 days.

© American Institute of Preventive Medicine

 

Источник: http://home.lagrange.edu/healthandsafety/firstaid/topics/first%20aid_burns.htm

Burns, First Aid

54378544Information for

Images of Burns, First Aid

This severe burn on the top of the foot was caused by a hot grease spill.Wax used in salons and at home can cause burns, particularly on thin, delicate areas of skin.

Overview

A burn is an injury to the skin resulting from direct contact or exposure from extreme heat or cold, friction, electricity, or chemicals. First-degree burns are superficial with red skin, pain, and no blistering. Second-degree burns involve destruction of the second layer of skin, causing blistering, swelling, and pain. Third-degree burns involve destruction of all layers of the skin, including fat, muscle, blood supply, and sometimes bone. Third-degree burns do not have pain associated with them.

Airway burns can affect the nose, throat, and windpipe and are typically caused by inhaling smoke, steam, or toxic fumes. The airway swells, which can cause suffocation. It is often difficult to determine the extent of airway burns.

It is important to try to assess the seriousness of a burn, which is determined, primarily, by the size of the burn and its depth. When in doubt, treat as a serious burn.

All first-degree burns and all second-degree burns that are smaller than 2–3 inches in diameter are considered minor burns, and they can be treated as specified in the First Aid Guide below. Seek professional medical care for burns that do not fit the above criteria.

First Aid Guide
General self-care measures for minor (first-degree and some second-degree) burns are as follows:

  1. Run the affected area under cold water, or immerse the area in cold water for 10–15 minutes. Note: Unless the burn is in the mouth, do not apply ice directly to the affected area.
  2. Gently pat the area dry with a clean or sterile cloth, and cover the area with a nonadhesive, sterile, dry dressing.
  3. Take a pain reliever such as acetaminophen (eg, Tylenol), ibuprofen (eg, Advil, Motrin), naproxen (eg, Aleve), or aspirin (but never use aspirin in children or adolescents aged 18 years or younger).
  4. Until the burn has healed, continue to apply clean, dry dressings, and change them daily.

For severe (extensive second-degree and all third-degree) burns, contact emergency help immediately. While awaiting professional medical care, self-care measures are as follows:

  1. Avoid further contact with smoke or heat, but do not remove the person's clothes and do not immerse the burn areas in cold water.
  2. Conduct CPR if necessary.
  3. Cover the affected area with a cool, moist cloth or bandage.

Burns caused by chemical exposure require quick first aid while awaiting medical care; doing so can lessen the chemical's harmful effects. Your local Poison Control Center can best provide this information. The following general measures can be taken while awaiting professional care.

  1. Remove the chemical, including clothing or anything on the person that came in contact with it, taking care to not spread the chemical elsewhere.
  2. Continually flush the affected area with fresh water.
  3. If 15 minutes have passed, apply cool, wet compresses to help relieve pain.
  4. Protect the burn area from friction by covering it with a loose, dry, sterile dressing.

Note: Do not leave the victim alone, and watch for signs of shock.

In the case of burns to the eye, if the white around the eye swells, if there are visual problems, or the burn is otherwise serious, seek medical attention. General first aid is as follows:

  1. Flush the eyes with cool water; if water increases pain symptoms, stop.
  2. Using light pressure, apply a cool compress to the eye.

Note: Do not rub the eye, and do not cough or breath on the burn.

Who's at risk?

Burns affect all people of all ages, races, and sexes.

Burns can happen at any time.

Signs and Symptoms

Burns can appear in a variety of ways, depending on the extent and severity of the burn, but red, white, or charred skin with peeling, swelling, and blisters is typical.

  • Minor burns are the size of a quarter or smaller. All first-degree burns and any second-degree burns that are smaller than 2–3 inches in diameter that are NOT on the hands, feet, face, groin, buttocks, or over a major joint are considered minor burns.
  • Severe burns are deep and may cover a large portion of the body or more than one area of the body. Second-degree burns that are larger than 2–3 inches in diameter that are on the hands, feet, face, groin, buttocks, or over a major joint and ALL third-degree burns are considered severe burns.

Airway burns can include a charred mouth; singed facial hair; visible burns on the head, face, or neck; and coughing or difficulty breathing.

When to Seek Medical Care

If a burn is a third-degree burn or if it is a second-degree burn that is larger than 2–3 inches in diameter; involves the hands, feet, face, groin, or buttocks; or is over a major joint, get medical help immediately. Do not use the level of pain as a determining factor in seeking medical care, as most severe burns are painless.

If a burn has resulted in shock (a person with pale, clammy skin, bluish color to the lips and fingernails, decreased alertness, and overall weakness), seek medical help immediately.

If a burn shows signs of infection (eg, increased pain, redness or red streaking toward the heart, swelling, discharge, or swollen lymph nodes), seek medical attention.

Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe

The physician will likely determine the extent of the burn. In the case of an airway burn, bronchoscopy or lung scan may be done. The wound will be cleansed with bactericidal solution, if necessary, the dressing for the wound will be changed, and instructions for home care will be given. If necessary, a tetanus vaccine will be given and surgical procedures will be discussed (eg, skin grafts).

Источник: https://www.skinsight.com/skin-conditions/first-aid/first-aid-burns

Bad Burn? Here’s When You Should Go to the ER

Burns remain a common injury seen in hospital emergency departments every year. Approximately 5-10% of all injuries are related to either thermal burns, electrical burns, or chemical burns. Burns are significant because the skin, which is the largest organ in our body, is destroyed. The skin protects us from pathogens (organisms that can cause disease), regulates our temperature, and aids in sensation, among other functions. Most scholars of health care agree there are four different levels of burns, and the care for each is determined by that level. Burns are labelled as first degree, second degree, third degree or fourth degree. Here is how to differentiate them:

1st Degree Burns

These burns involve only the superficial layer of the skin. A sunburn is an excellent example of a first degree burn. The skin remains intact, and there is no blistering. Pain control is the top priority for these burns. If the pain can be controlled, the burn can be treated at home or at Urgent Care.

2nd Degree Burns

Second degree burns are also known as partial thickness burns. These burns extend past the skin and into the dermal layer. The most prominent indication of a second degree burn is the formation of blisters. Blisters actually serve as a source of protection to the wound, by providing a barrier for bacteria. They should be left intact if possible.

If a second degree burn is limited to a focal area, it can be treated at home. Immediately cool the area with cool water, then treat with an antibiotic ointment and cover with loose gauze. Remember to try not to break blisters if they are present.

If the burn is beyond a limited area or is substantial, it should be evaluated at an urgent care or ER. At an urgent care or ER, these wounds and blisters are cleansed and examined. If intact, they will most likely be left in place and the wound bandaged with antibiotic ointment and covered with gauze. If the blisters have already been broken, the physician will debride, or trim the skin around the wound. Then the wounds are covered with antibiotic ointment and gauze.

Since second degree burns are very painful, pain management is a huge part of the treatment for these burns. Burns of this nature are also measured in terms of what percentage of the body surface is impacted. For instance, burns may be categorized as covering 40% total body surface area (TBSA). Burns over 10% TBSA are significant burns.



3rd Degree Burns

Third degree burns are deep burns that extend past the skin, the dermis, and into the muscle tissue. These burns are not painful in themselves because the nerves are damaged, but they are often surrounded by second degree burns, which makes pain control a significant issue.  If these burns cover a substantial part of the body, they need to be treated in a designated burn center or in a hospital with a dedicated burn unit. This is also true if the burns involve the face, hands, feet, or the perineal area.

Treatment in the emergency department targets resuscitation of the patient. The patient may require support from the ventilator if they breathed in hot air and singed their airway. Fluid resuscitation by IV fluids is needed along with monitoring of urine output. These patients will be cared for in a burn center and will be subject to multiple skin grafts and lengthy hospitalizations.

4th Degree Burns

Fourth degree burns extend all the way down to the bone. These burns destroy incredible amounts of tissue, and often result in amputations and death.

Prevention is the key to treatment of most burns. Make sure smoke alarms are installed properly and are functional. Be sure when cooking on a stove that all handles of pots and pans are turned towards the back of the appliance so that little curious hands cannot grab them. Never use accelerants when igniting trash, and handle combustible materials carefully. Burns are some of the most disfiguring injuries that can occur. Preventing them will save you from their pain and destruction.


Know where to go for urgent or emergency care services.

Learn More

Tags:diane simon, general health, trauma

Источник: https://promedicahealthconnect.org/general-health/bad-burn-heres-when-you-should-go-to-the-er/

Hand Burns: Treatment & Remedies

By Dr. John Knight

Contents

What are Burns of the Hand?

Burns to part or all of the hand are common due to the basic function of the hand. Burns are a type of tissue injury that results from exposure to heat (flames, steam, hot liquids, etc.), chemicals, electricity, or even radiation. Burns to the skin reduce the body’s defenses against fluid loss and infection.

Burns are classified into four categories based on the extent of damage ranging from first-degree to fourth-degree which are the most severe. Most burns are a combination of two or more burn depths. First-degree burns only affect the epidermis (the top layer of the skin) causing irritation and redness as in the case of sunburn. Second-degree burns are the most painful, involve deeper layers of the skin, can be partial or full thickness, and may cause blistering or oozing of the skin. All layers of the skin are destroyed in third-degree burns and they are typically painless as they cause nerve damage. Fourth-degree burns are extremely severe, penetrating down to the muscle and bone.


What causes Burns of the Hand?

Burns can result from a variety of causes. Thermal sources are the most common. Heat from the sun, friction, and various kitchen hazards such as boiling fluids, a stovetop, or an open flame of a barbeque grill can cause varying degrees of thermal burns. Chemicals, radiation and electricity can also result in burns. The degree of the burn depends on the length of exposure and the causative agent among other factors.


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What are the symptoms of Burns of the Hand?

Symptoms vary with the severity of the burn. First-degree burns present with dry redness and can be quite sore or tender. Second-degree burns are the most painful. Second-degree burns may be full or partial thickness, with oozing blisters, and be white, pink or red in color. Third-degree burns appear dry, leathery or charred, with little to no pain present. Digit loss is possible in fourth-degree burns with visibly exposed muscle and possibly bone.

hand with 3rd degree burn


How are Burns of the Hand diagnosed?

In addition to a detailed history and circumstances associated with the burn, physical examination of the injured extremity is used to determine the severity and initiate an effective treatment plan.


How are Burns of the Hand treated?

First and Second-Degree Burns of the Hand

Treatment of burns depends directly on the causative agent and degree of injury. Minor burns may be successfully treated at home. Sunburns generally heal within two to five days and can be treated with aloe vera, low dose hydrocortisone creams, and pain medication. Other first and second-degree thermal burns should be immediately immersed in cool (not cold) water for 10 or more minutes. In chemical burns the causative agent must be neutralized and removed as soon as possible. Restrictive items such as rings should be removed quickly before the area swells. Keep the burn clean with mild soap and water. Over the counter antibiotic ointments may be used. Small blisters should be left intact to heal, while large blisters may require medical removal. A tetanus booster shot may also be recommended.

Third and Fourth-Degree burns of the Hand

Third and fourth-degree burns require immediate medical intervention. The burned area will need repeat cleaning and debridement. Skin grafts are required to repair and replace the damaged/missing skin. Any exposed bone may need stabilization with wires or pins until the skin grafts fully heal. The hand and wrist may be splinted to prevent contractures. The extremity must stay elevated to reduce swelling and inflammation. Once healed, hand therapy is necessary to restore functionality and range of motion the extremity.


How can Dr. Knight help you with burns to the hand?

While minor burns to the hand can be an inconvenience, more severe burns can be debilitating and painful, and should be treated as soon and as thoroughly as possible, to avoid further complications. Dr. Knight has treated many burns in the course of his practice and will work with you to develop the most comprehensive course of treatment to bring your hand back to proper function.

Dr. Knight welcomes you to any of our Dallas Fort-Worth accessible hand and wrist offices. Dr. Knight is an accomplished hand specialist. Come to our Southlake office or Dallas office today and bring life back to your hands.


Frequently Asked Questions:

Can I use toothpaste to soothe a burn?
This is an old wives’ tale and putting toothpaste on a burn has no discernable clinical benefit. In fact, depending on the type of toothpaste, certain additives and flavorings such as menthol can irritate the already tender and irritated skin, or even cause chemical burns if the concentration is high enough and if the skin is very damaged.

Can I put Vaseline on my burn?
Vaseline, along with butter and other cooking shortenings, are very bad things to put on a burn, because they conduct heat well, and so if the burn continues to create heat in your tissue, these substances can make it harder for the heat in the burn to subside and can also infiltrate other tissues and increase the area of the burn.

How long do burns take to heal?
The recovery and healing time of burns is dependent upon the severity of the individual burn. A first-degree burn may take a few days to a couple of weeks, depending on the size and the position of the bone, while second degree, or partial thickness burns, can take three to four weeks. Third degree burns, the worst of the burns, do not heal in the same way as lesser burns, as they involve not only the skin but also layers of muscle and tissue beneath the skin. Full thickness burns leave a permanent layer of scar tissue across the burned area, and unless extensive skin grafting is performed during and after the recovery period, then unsightly scars will be unavoidable.

How do I deal with blistering from a burn?
Many burns will lead to blistering on the skin, and while it is tempting to puncture the blisters and release the fluid, it is important to avoid this urge for as along as possible. The fluid in the bluster actually serves a purpose, and that is to protect the new skin that grows underneath it, over the burn, so popping the blister actually leads to the possible introduction of bacteria to the injury, increasing the chance of infection.


Book an Appointment or Ask a Question

Call Us
(817) 382-6789

Disclaimer
HandAndWristInstitute.com does not offer medical advice. The information presented here is offered for informational purposes only. Read Disclaimer

Dr. John Knight
Dr. John Knight

Dr. Knight is a renowned hand, wrist and upper extremity surgeon with over 25 years of experience. Dr. Knight is a Board Certified Orthopedic Surgeon and Fellowship trained. Dr Knight has appeared on CNN, The Doctors TV, Good Morning America, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, Forbes, The Huffington Post, Entrepreneur, Oxygen network and more.

Источник: https://handandwristinstitute.com/burns-hand-doctor/

Burns, First Aid

54378544Information for

Images of Burns, First Aid

This severe burn on the top of the foot was caused by a hot grease spill.Wax used in salons and at home can cause burns, particularly on thin, delicate areas of skin.

Overview

A burn is an injury to the skin resulting from direct contact or exposure from extreme heat or cold, friction, electricity, or chemicals. First-degree burns are superficial with red skin, pain, and no blistering. Second-degree burns involve destruction of the second layer of skin, causing blistering, swelling, and pain. Third-degree burns involve destruction of all layers of the skin, including fat, muscle, blood supply, and sometimes bone. Third-degree burns do not have pain associated with them.

Airway burns can affect the nose, throat, and windpipe and are typically caused by inhaling smoke, steam, or toxic fumes. The airway swells, which can cause suffocation. It is often difficult to determine the extent of airway burns.

It is important to try to assess the seriousness of a burn, which is determined, primarily, by the size of the burn and its depth. When in doubt, treat as a serious burn.

All first-degree burns and all second-degree burns that are smaller than 2–3 inches in diameter are considered minor burns, and they can be treated as specified in the First Aid Guide below. Seek professional medical care for burns that do not fit the above criteria.

First Aid Guide
General self-care measures for minor (first-degree and some second-degree) burns are as follows:

  1. Run the affected area under cold water, or immerse the area in cold water for 10–15 minutes. Note: Unless the burn is in the mouth, do not apply ice directly to the affected area.
  2. Gently pat the area dry with a clean or sterile cloth, and cover the area with a nonadhesive, sterile, dry dressing.
  3. Take a pain reliever such as acetaminophen (eg, Tylenol), ibuprofen (eg, Advil, Motrin), naproxen (eg, Aleve), or aspirin (but never use aspirin in children or adolescents aged 18 uk phone country code from usa or younger).
  4. Until the burn has healed, continue to apply clean, dry dressings, and change them daily.

For severe (extensive second-degree and all third-degree) burns, contact emergency help immediately. While awaiting professional medical care, self-care measures are as follows:

  1. Avoid further contact with smoke or heat, but do not remove the person's clothes and do not immerse the burn areas in cold water.
  2. Conduct CPR if necessary.
  3. Cover the affected area with a cool, moist cloth or bandage.

Burns caused by chemical exposure require quick first aid 1st degree burn on foot awaiting medical care; doing so can lessen the chemical's harmful effects. Your local Poison Control Center can best provide this information. The following general measures can be taken while awaiting professional care.

  1. Remove the chemical, including clothing or anything on the person that came in contact with it, taking care to not spread the chemical elsewhere.
  2. Continually flush the affected area with fresh water.
  3. If 15 minutes have passed, apply cool, wet compresses to help relieve pain.
  4. Protect the burn area from friction by covering it with a loose, dry, sterile dressing.

Note: Do not leave the victim alone, and watch for signs of shock.

In the case of burns to the eye, if the white around the eye swells, if there are visual problems, or the burn 1st degree burn on foot otherwise serious, seek medical attention. General first aid is as follows:

  1. Flush the eyes with cool water; if water increases pain symptoms, stop.
  2. Using light pressure, apply a cool compress to the eye.

Note: Do not rub the eye, and do not cough or breath on the burn.

Who's at risk?

Burns affect all people of all ages, races, and sexes.

Burns can happen at any time.

Signs and Symptoms

Burns can appear in a variety of ways, depending on the extent and severity of the burn, but red, white, or charred skin with peeling, swelling, and blisters is typical.

  • Minor burns are the size of a quarter or smaller. All first-degree burns and any second-degree burns that are smaller than 2–3 inches in diameter that are NOT on the hands, feet, face, groin, buttocks, or over a major joint are considered minor burns.
  • Severe burns are deep and may cover a large portion of the body or more than one area of the body. Second-degree burns that are larger than 2–3 inches in diameter that are on the hands, feet, face, groin, buttocks, or over a major joint and ALL third-degree burns are considered severe burns.

Airway burns can include a charred mouth; singed facial hair; visible burns on the head, face, or neck; and coughing or difficulty breathing.

When to Seek Medical Care

If a burn is a third-degree burn or if it is a second-degree burn that is larger than 2–3 inches in diameter; involves the hands, feet, face, groin, or buttocks; or is over a major joint, get medical help immediately. Do not use the level of pain as a determining factor in seeking medical care, as most severe burns are painless.

If a burn has resulted in shock (a person with pale, clammy skin, bluish color to the lips and fingernails, decreased alertness, and overall weakness), seek medical help immediately.

If a burn shows signs of infection (eg, increased pain, redness or red streaking toward the heart, swelling, discharge, or swollen lymph nodes), seek medical attention.

Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe

The physician will likely determine the extent of the burn. In the case of an airway burn, bronchoscopy or lung scan may be done. The wound will be cleansed with bactericidal solution, if necessary, the dressing for the wound will be changed, and instructions for home care will be given. If necessary, a tetanus vaccine will be given and surgical procedures will be discussed (eg, skin grafts).

Источник: https://www.skinsight.com/skin-conditions/first-aid/first-aid-burns

Burn Pictures: A Close Look at First, Second, and Third Degree

Second-Degree Burn With Swelling

Blisters are the most common sign of a second-degree burn. Most symptoms of a second-degree burn are similar to first-degree burns. Roblox gift card amazon, second-degree burns will also have:

  • Blisters
  • Severe pain
  • Sloughing, or when the top layer of skin falls away
  • Swelling
  • Weeping fluid, or fluid that oozes out

A second-degree burn is considered severe when it can potentially cause a loss of function in the the part of the body burned. When emergency healthcare providers determine the severity of a burn, they look to determine the extent of the body burned.

Second-degree burns that involve the face, hands, feet, genitalia, or major joints are considered severe and require immediate attention.

A swollen, second-degree burn that goes all the way around an arm or leg can also put pressure on nerve cells and restrict blood flow to other parts of the body that aren't even involved in the burned area. This is known as compartment syndrome.

In the worst-case scenario, compartment syndrome can cause tissue to die and give off toxins that increase the overall damage. If left untreated, this can lead to amputation, or worse, fatality.

Источник: https://www.verywellhealth.com/burn-pictures-4020409

Hand Burns: Treatment & Remedies

By Dr. John Knight

Contents

What are Burns of the Hand?

Burns to part or all of the hand are common due to the basic function of the hand. Burns are a type of tissue injury that results from exposure to heat (flames, steam, hot liquids, etc.), chemicals, electricity, or even radiation. Burns to the skin reduce the body’s defenses against fluid loss and infection.

Burns are classified into four categories based on the extent of damage ranging from first-degree to fourth-degree which are the most severe. Most burns are a combination of two or more burn depths. First-degree burns only affect the epidermis (the top layer of the skin) causing irritation and redness as in the case of sunburn. Second-degree burns are the most painful, involve deeper layers of the skin, can be partial or full thickness, and may cause blistering or oozing of the skin. All layers of the skin are destroyed in third-degree burns and they are typically painless as they cause nerve damage. Fourth-degree burns are extremely severe, penetrating down to the muscle and bone.


What causes Burns of the Hand?

Burns can result from a variety of causes. Thermal sources are the most common. Heat from the sun, friction, and various kitchen hazards such as boiling fluids, a stovetop, or an open flame of a barbeque grill can cause varying degrees of thermal burns. Chemicals, radiation and electricity can also result in burns. The degree of the burn depends on the length of exposure and the causative agent among other factors.


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What are the symptoms of Burns of the Hand?

Symptoms vary with the severity of the burn. First-degree burns present with dry redness and can be quite sore or tender. Second-degree burns are the most painful. Second-degree burns may be full or partial thickness, with oozing blisters, and be white, pink or red in color. Third-degree burns appear dry, leathery or charred, with little to no pain present. Digit loss is possible in fourth-degree burns with visibly exposed muscle and possibly bone.

hand with 3rd degree burn


How are Burns of the Hand diagnosed?

In addition to a detailed history and circumstances associated with the burn, physical examination of the injured extremity is used to determine the severity and initiate an effective treatment plan.


How are Burns of the Hand treated?

First and Second-Degree Burns of the Hand

Treatment of burns depends directly on the causative agent and degree of injury. Minor burns may be successfully treated at home. Sunburns generally heal within two to five days and can be treated with aloe vera, low dose hydrocortisone creams, and pain medication. Other first and second-degree thermal burns should be immediately immersed in cool (not cold) water for 10 or more minutes. In chemical burns the causative agent must be neutralized and removed as soon as possible. Restrictive items such as rings should be removed quickly before the area swells. Keep the burn clean with mild soap and water. Over the counter antibiotic ointments may be used. Small blisters should be left intact to heal, while large blisters may require medical removal. A tetanus booster shot may also be recommended.

Third and Fourth-Degree burns of the Hand

Third and fourth-degree burns require immediate medical intervention. The burned area will need repeat cleaning and debridement. Skin grafts are required to repair and replace the damaged/missing skin. Any exposed bone may need stabilization with wires or pins until the skin grafts fully heal. The hand and wrist may be splinted to prevent contractures. The extremity must stay elevated to reduce swelling and inflammation. Once healed, hand therapy is necessary to restore functionality and range of motion the extremity.


How can Dr. Knight help you with burns to the hand?

While minor burns to the hand can be an inconvenience, more severe burns can be debilitating and painful, and should be treated as soon and as thoroughly as possible, to avoid further complications. Dr. Knight has treated many burns in the course of his practice and will work with you to develop the most comprehensive course of treatment to bring your hand back to proper function.

Dr. Knight welcomes you to any of our Dallas Fort-Worth accessible hand and wrist offices. Dr. Knight is an accomplished hand specialist. Come to our Southlake office or Dallas office today and bring life back to your hands.


Frequently Asked Questions:

Can I use toothpaste to soothe a burn?
This is an old wives’ tale and putting toothpaste on a burn has no discernable clinical benefit. In fact, depending on the type of toothpaste, certain additives and flavorings such as menthol can irritate the already tender and irritated skin, or even cause chemical burns if the concentration is high enough and if the skin is very damaged.

Can I put Vaseline on my burn?
Vaseline, along with butter and other cooking shortenings, are very bad things to put on a burn, because they conduct heat well, and so if the burn continues to create heat in your tissue, these substances can make it harder for the heat in the burn to subside and can also infiltrate other tissues and increase the area of the burn.

How long do burns take to heal?
The recovery and healing time of burns is dependent upon the severity of the individual burn. A first-degree burn may take a few days to a couple of weeks, depending on the size and the position of the bone, while second degree, or partial thickness burns, can take three to four weeks. Third degree burns, the worst of the burns, do not heal in the same way as lesser burns, as they involve not only the skin but also layers of muscle and tissue beneath the skin. Full thickness burns leave a permanent layer of scar tissue across the burned area, and unless extensive skin grafting is performed during and after the recovery period, then unsightly scars will be unavoidable.

How do I deal with blistering from a burn?
Many burns will lead to blistering on the skin, and while it is tempting to puncture the blisters and release the fluid, it is important to avoid this urge for as along as possible. The fluid in the bluster actually serves a purpose, and that is to protect the new skin that grows underneath it, over the burn, so popping the blister actually leads to the possible introduction of bacteria to the injury, increasing the chance of infection.


Book an Appointment or Ask a Question

Call Us
(817) 382-6789

Disclaimer
HandAndWristInstitute.com does not offer medical advice. The information presented here is offered for informational purposes only. Read Disclaimer

Dr. John Knight
Dr. John Knight

Dr. Knight is a renowned hand, wrist and upper extremity surgeon with over 25 years of experience. Dr. Knight is a Board Certified Orthopedic Surgeon and Fellowship trained. Dr Knight has appeared on CNN, The Doctors TV, Good Morning America, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, Forbes, The Huffington Post, Entrepreneur, Oxygen network and more.

Источник: https://handandwristinstitute.com/burns-hand-doctor/

Bad Burn? Here’s When You Should Go to the ER

Burns remain a common injury seen in hospital emergency departments every year. Approximately 5-10% of all injuries are related to either thermal burns, electrical burns, or chemical burns. Burns are significant because the skin, which is the largest organ in our body, is destroyed. The skin protects us from pathogens (organisms that can cause disease), regulates our temperature, and aids in sensation, among other functions. Most scholars of health care agree there are four different levels of burns, and the care for each is determined by that level. Burns are labelled as first degree, second degree, third degree or fourth degree. Here is how to differentiate them:

1st Degree Burns

These burns involve only the superficial layer of the skin. A sunburn is an excellent example of a first degree burn. The skin remains intact, and there is no blistering. Pain control is the top priority for these burns. If the pain can be controlled, the burn can be treated at home or at Urgent Care.

2nd Degree Burns

Second degree burns are also known as partial thickness burns. These burns extend past the skin and into the dermal layer. The most prominent indication of a second degree burn is the formation of blisters. Blisters actually serve as a source of protection to the wound, by providing a barrier 1st degree burn on foot bacteria. They should be left intact if possible.

If a second degree burn is limited to a focal area, it can be treated at home. Immediately cool the area with cool water, then treat 1st degree burn on foot an antibiotic ointment and cover with loose gauze. Remember to try not to break blisters if they are present.

If the burn is beyond a limited area or is substantial, it should be evaluated at an urgent care or ER. At an urgent care or ER, these wounds and blisters are cleansed and examined. If intact, they will most likely be left in place and the wound bandaged with antibiotic ointment and covered with gauze. If the blisters have already been broken, the physician will debride, or trim the skin around the wound. Then the wounds are covered with antibiotic ointment and gauze.

Since second degree burns are very painful, pain management is a huge part of the treatment for these burns. Burns of this nature are also measured in terms of what percentage of the body surface is impacted. For instance, burns may be categorized as covering 40% total body surface area (TBSA). Burns over 10% TBSA are significant burns.



3rd Degree Burns

Third degree burns are deep burns that extend past the skin, the dermis, and into the muscle tissue. These burns are not painful in themselves because the nerves are damaged, but they are often surrounded by second degree burns, which makes pain control a significant issue.  If these burns cover a substantial part of the body, they need to be treated in a designated burn center or in a hospital with a dedicated burn unit. This is also true if the burns involve the face, hands, feet, or the perineal area.

Treatment in the emergency department targets resuscitation of the patient. The patient may require support from the ventilator if they breathed in hot air and singed their airway. Fluid resuscitation by IV fluids is needed along with monitoring of urine output. These patients will be cared for in a burn center and will be subject to multiple skin grafts and lengthy hospitalizations.

4th Degree Burns

Fourth degree burns extend all the way down to the bone. These burns destroy incredible amounts of tissue, and often result in amputations and death.

Prevention is the key to treatment of most burns. Make sure smoke alarms are installed properly and are functional. Be sure when cooking on a stove that all handles of pots and pans are turned towards the back of the appliance so that little curious hands cannot grab them. Never use accelerants when igniting trash, and handle combustible materials carefully. Burns are some of the most disfiguring injuries that can occur. Preventing them will save you from their pain and destruction.


Know where to go for urgent or emergency care services.

Learn More

Tags:diane simon, general health, trauma

Источник: https://promedicahealthconnect.org/general-health/bad-burn-heres-when-you-should-go-to-the-er/

First Aid for Burns

Burns are ugly, they hurt and they're scary. But they can be treated with simple first aid steps. In fact, they're the one injury that must be treated before medical help arrives.

The fact is that burns, unless treated right away, will get worse. They'll get deeper below the surface of the skin because the heat continues to do damage.

When it comes to burns, degree has nothing to do with temperature. The terms first- second- and third-degree identify the severity of a burn. Of those, first-degree is the least harmful, and third-degree is the worst.

You might not think of your skin as an organ; after all, it hardly looks like a kidney or a heart. But the skin is a system of the body, and it's the largest organ of the body, too. It's the first shield against aliens, a natural-growing, one-person army of protection, germ warfare, and elimination. If something happens to the skin, the rest of your body is much more vulnerable to infection, shock, and disease.

A burn, which affects that skin, is its worst nightmare come true. Unless you act fast, a burn can seep into the skin and invade your entire body.

The next few sections cover each degree of burn and specific first aid treatment for it.

Because first aid treatment depends on a burn's severity, it's important to correctly identify the severity of the burn. Check the appearance at the center of the wound. That's usually where the burn is deepest, which is your indicator of what degree of treatment is required.

The Three Goals in Treating Burns—No Matter the Degree

There is a light (excuse the pun) at the end of the tunnel when it comes to burns. The fact is that burns can be treated successfully if first aid is administered quickly. By reading this, you're already ahead of the first aid burn game. You'll know how to act fast in case of emergency. You'll know how to treat a burn, regardless of the degree or cause, while you wait for help to arrive.

  1. Prevent shock.
  2. Ease pain.
  3. Reduce the risk of infection.

The “Thou Shalt Not” Commandments for Burn Treatment

The first aid measures you don't take can be as important as those you do take, especially when it comes to burns. Here's the “short list” on what not to do:

  • Do not pierce or open blisters. It leaves the burned person “wide open” for infection.
  • Do not peel off burned dead skin. It 1st degree burn on foot only leaves the new skin underneath too vulnerable to infection, but it can cause scarring.
  • Do not attempt to peel away any clothing stuck to the burn. Pulling away the cloth can also peel away any healing skin. And, as anyone who's ever had a bandage pulled off knows, it can hurt too!
  • Do not use butter, antiseptic creams, or any other “folk remedies” on 1st degree burn on foot. They can actually cause the infection you're trying to avoid! None of these remedies, especially butter, will do anything beneficial for major burns.

First-Degree Burns

Accidentally touching a hot burner, getting too much tropical sun, and holding a scalding hot pot are all ways you can get first-degree burns. First-degree burns are the most benign and most common burns of all. However, because first-degree burns irritate nerve endings (especially in fingertips), they can hurt a great deal.

Luckily, healing is very quick because only the outermost layer of skin is affected.

You can tell these burns not only by the amount of howling the sufferer does when the accident occurs, but also by the resulting red skin. There will be no blisters on a first-degree burn, nor will the skin be broken. There may be some swelling on and around the burned area. This kind of burn affects only the outermost layers of the skin.

First-degree burns have slight redness or discoloration, along with a bit of swelling and pain.
First-degree burns have
slight redness or discoloration,
along with a 1st degree burn on foot of swelling and pain.

First-degree burns don't usually need professional medical attention. Simply cool the burn under cool, running water for several minutes to stop the burn from getting worse. You can give the injured person an aspirin (if he or she has no medical complications and never give children aspirin) and soothe the area with some aloe vera ointment or burn cream.

Second-Degree Burns

By the very nature of their place on the “burn hierarchy,” these burns require some medical treatment. You can get a second-degree burn from too much sun, scalding hot soup, coffee, tea or quick flash burns from gasoline or kerosene lamps.

Second-degree burns are distinguished by the blistery, red blotchy marks they leave on skin. Blisters form in these burns because the burn penetrates deeper into the layers of skin, releasing body fluids that erupt and cause blisters on the surface. Sometimes the burned area will swell or ooze, and it is painful.

Second-degree burns look red or mottled, and generally have blisters. These burns may ooze or swell.Second-degree burns look red
or mottled, and generally have
blisters. These burns may ooze
or swell.

Pain from second-degree burns can be vastly reduced by preventing air from getting at those tender, exposed nerve endings and tissues. Here's the best emergency first aid, step-by-step:

  1. Submerge the burned area in cool water. If the burn occurred on the chest or back, pour cool water from a bucket directly onto the burn.
  2. Keep the cool water on the burn until medical help arrives. If the burns are minor, keep them in cool water for at least five minutes.
  3. If the burns are extensive, you can apply a cool, wet cloth to the affected area—but only if the dressing is wrapped in plastic. Cloth tends to adhere to burns, and it can worsen the pain if a physician has to pull it off to treat the burn.
  4. If the burns are minor, you can treat them in the same way you'd treat first-degree ones. You won't need medical help. Simply pat the area dry and place a loose sterile cloth over it.

Third-Degree Burns

Third-degree burns are serious—deadly serious. If you encounter someone who has a third-degree burn, get medical attention fast! How do you know a third-degree burn from a first- or second-degree one? The injured person is literally burned, the skin is charred and white. All of the layers of skin are destroyed (sometimes quite obviously) with this kind of burn.

First Things 1st degree burn on foot you know that third-degree burns hardly ever hurt at all, at least not initially? That's because nerve endings have been completely burned, and the brain hasn't yet received the painful message.

Third-degree burns come from situations like the ones you read about in the paper. Fireman rushing from burning buildings. People rolling on the ground with their clothes on fire. Pots of boiling water spilling on vulnerable skin. Accidents involving electrical outlets. Any of these can cause serious burns and shock.

If the burned person shows any of the signs of shock, immediately treat that before taking care of the burn. See Performing Mouth-to-Mouth Resuscitation for step-by-step instructions on treating shock.

As we've already mentioned, third-degree burns are the most severe of all burns. They require medical treatment and precise first aid care. If you know what you are doing, you can help prevent infection from spreading.

Third-degree burns look like deep wounds and often appear to be white and charred.

Third-degree burns look like deep
wounds and often appear to be white
and charred.
  1. Call for medical attention if access is immediately available.
  2. Treat for shock, if necessary. This is especially true if the burn is caused by electric shock.
  3. If you suspect chemical burning, especially from dangerous acids, you need to take first aid care one step further in order to stop the burn from spreading. As soon as you've called for medical help, pick up the phone and call the local poison control center. As with any type of poison ingestion or inhalation or burn, these specialists can tell you exactly what you need to do.
  4. Remove any tight clothing or jewelry that's not on the actual burned area. With third-degree burns, there's always the danger of swelling which can cause blood vessels to constrict and create other complications.
  5. You can submerge the burned area under cool running water, but avoid ice. Too much cold can exacerbate shock.
  6. Pat the area dry and place a loose, sterile cloth over the area.
  7. If hands are burned, elevate them, keeping them higher than the heart. This can be done by gently placing pillows under the injured person's arms.
  8. Burned legs and feet should also be elevated to keep blood flowing smoothly.
  9. Keep the injured person still. Do not let him or her walk around.
  10. If the face is burned, keep checking for breathing complications. If airways seem to be blocked, follow the instructions for performing mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
  11. Above all, get the burned victim to a hospital. Third-degree burn victims are prime candidates for infection, pneumonia, and other complications, and they need medical attention fast.

Источник: https://www.familyeducation.com/life/burns/first-aid-burns

1st degree burn on foot -

Burns, First Aid

54378544Information for

Images of Burns, First Aid

This severe burn on the top of the foot was caused by a hot grease spill.Wax used in salons and at home can cause burns, particularly on thin, delicate areas of skin.

Overview

A burn is an injury to the skin resulting from direct contact or exposure from extreme heat or cold, friction, electricity, or chemicals. First-degree burns are superficial with red skin, pain, and no blistering. Second-degree burns involve destruction of the second layer of skin, causing blistering, swelling, and pain. Third-degree burns involve destruction of all layers of the skin, including fat, muscle, blood supply, and sometimes bone. Third-degree burns do not have pain associated with them.

Airway burns can affect the nose, throat, and windpipe and are typically caused by inhaling smoke, steam, or toxic fumes. The airway swells, which can cause suffocation. It is often difficult to determine the extent of airway burns.

It is important to try to assess the seriousness of a burn, which is determined, primarily, by the size of the burn and its depth. When in doubt, treat as a serious burn.

All first-degree burns and all second-degree burns that are smaller than 2–3 inches in diameter are considered minor burns, and they can be treated as specified in the First Aid Guide below. Seek professional medical care for burns that do not fit the above criteria.

First Aid Guide
General self-care measures for minor (first-degree and some second-degree) burns are as follows:

  1. Run the affected area under cold water, or immerse the area in cold water for 10–15 minutes. Note: Unless the burn is in the mouth, do not apply ice directly to the affected area.
  2. Gently pat the area dry with a clean or sterile cloth, and cover the area with a nonadhesive, sterile, dry dressing.
  3. Take a pain reliever such as acetaminophen (eg, Tylenol), ibuprofen (eg, Advil, Motrin), naproxen (eg, Aleve), or aspirin (but never use aspirin in children or adolescents aged 18 years or younger).
  4. Until the burn has healed, continue to apply clean, dry dressings, and change them daily.

For severe (extensive second-degree and all third-degree) burns, contact emergency help immediately. While awaiting professional medical care, self-care measures are as follows:

  1. Avoid further contact with smoke or heat, but do not remove the person's clothes and do not immerse the burn areas in cold water.
  2. Conduct CPR if necessary.
  3. Cover the affected area with a cool, moist cloth or bandage.

Burns caused by chemical exposure require quick first aid while awaiting medical care; doing so can lessen the chemical's harmful effects. Your local Poison Control Center can best provide this information. The following general measures can be taken while awaiting professional care.

  1. Remove the chemical, including clothing or anything on the person that came in contact with it, taking care to not spread the chemical elsewhere.
  2. Continually flush the affected area with fresh water.
  3. If 15 minutes have passed, apply cool, wet compresses to help relieve pain.
  4. Protect the burn area from friction by covering it with a loose, dry, sterile dressing.

Note: Do not leave the victim alone, and watch for signs of shock.

In the case of burns to the eye, if the white around the eye swells, if there are visual problems, or the burn is otherwise serious, seek medical attention. General first aid is as follows:

  1. Flush the eyes with cool water; if water increases pain symptoms, stop.
  2. Using light pressure, apply a cool compress to the eye.

Note: Do not rub the eye, and do not cough or breath on the burn.

Who's at risk?

Burns affect all people of all ages, races, and sexes.

Burns can happen at any time.

Signs and Symptoms

Burns can appear in a variety of ways, depending on the extent and severity of the burn, but red, white, or charred skin with peeling, swelling, and blisters is typical.

  • Minor burns are the size of a quarter or smaller. All first-degree burns and any second-degree burns that are smaller than 2–3 inches in diameter that are NOT on the hands, feet, face, groin, buttocks, or over a major joint are considered minor burns.
  • Severe burns are deep and may cover a large portion of the body or more than one area of the body. Second-degree burns that are larger than 2–3 inches in diameter that are on the hands, feet, face, groin, buttocks, or over a major joint and ALL third-degree burns are considered severe burns.

Airway burns can include a charred mouth; singed facial hair; visible burns on the head, face, or neck; and coughing or difficulty breathing.

When to Seek Medical Care

If a burn is a third-degree burn or if it is a second-degree burn that is larger than 2–3 inches in diameter; involves the hands, feet, face, groin, or buttocks; or is over a major joint, get medical help immediately. Do not use the level of pain as a determining factor in seeking medical care, as most severe burns are painless.

If a burn has resulted in shock (a person with pale, clammy skin, bluish color to the lips and fingernails, decreased alertness, and overall weakness), seek medical help immediately.

If a burn shows signs of infection (eg, increased pain, redness or red streaking toward the heart, swelling, discharge, or swollen lymph nodes), seek medical attention.

Treatments Your Physician May Prescribe

The physician will likely determine the extent of the burn. In the case of an airway burn, bronchoscopy or lung scan may be done. The wound will be cleansed with bactericidal solution, if necessary, the dressing for the wound will be changed, and instructions for home care will be given. If necessary, a tetanus vaccine will be given and surgical procedures will be discussed (eg, skin grafts).

Источник: https://www.skinsight.com/skin-conditions/first-aid/first-aid-burns

Gently cleansing your skin after a first- or second-degree burn is also important. The key word here though is gently, Zeichner stresses. "Especially after leaving the beach, you may want to scrub the skin to remove dirt, sand, oil, and sunscreen," he explains. "But overly scrubbing the skin, which is already weakened from a sunburn, can cause more harm than good."

To safely clean your burn stay away from any exfoliating cleansers and harsh soaps, which have an alkaline pH and can be irritating, Zeichner explains. "Instead look for gentle, hydrating, soap-free cleansers like Dove Deep Moisture Nourishing Body Wash that effectively cleanse the skin and hydrate at the same time — without causing more damage to the outer skin layer."

Finally, you want to make sure to keep scorched skin moist. Since a burn disrupts the skin barrier, it can become extra dry and sensitive as it heals. The remedy? Keep it moist with aloe vera gel or a light petroleum-based lotion. Zeichner recommends Vaseline Intensive Care Advanced Repair Lotion to help seal in moisture.

For a mild second-degree burn, you can treat it pretty much the same way you would a first-degree burn. But as it heals, the experts say it's important to pay closer attention to spot signs of infection. You have to be especially careful with the blisters. "If the blister is large, and you feel up to it, you can try to drain it," says Zeichner.

To do this, grab some rubbing alcohol and sterilize the blister and surrounding skin. Using a sewing needle, which should also be sterilized with rubbing alcohol, gently poke the side of the blister, Zeichner says. Gently press on the blister to drain the fluid. After you pop the blister, apply an antibiotic cream and, whatever you do, make sure not to rip any of this skin off. This can up your chances of infection.

"Since second-degree burns are more severe, I recommend a heavier ointment to protect the sensitive or blistered skin," Zeichner says. Try CeraVe Healing Ointment. With a more serious second-degree burn — one that covers a large area, is incredibly blistered or painful, or is in a tough to treat position such as your hand or the back of your legs — see a doctor.

Источник: https://www.allure.com/story/what-burns-look-like-degrees-photo-guide

Burns

Burns commonly occur by direct or indirect contact with heat, electric current, radiation, or chemical agents. Burns can lead to cell death, which can require hospitalization and can be fatal.

There are three levels of burns:

  • First-degree burns affect only the outer layer of the skin. They cause pain, redness, and swelling.
  • Second-degree burns affect both the outer and underlying layer of skin. They cause pain, redness, swelling, and blistering. They are also called partial thickness burns.
  • Third-degree burns affect the deep layers of skin. They are also called full thickness burns. They cause white or blackened, burned skin. The skin may be numb.

Burns fall into two groups.

Minor burns are:

  • First degree burns anywhere on the body
  • Second degree burns less than 2 to 3 inches (5 to 7.5 centimeters) wide

Major burns include:

  • Third-degree burns
  • Second-degree burns more than 2 to 3 inches (5 to 7.5 centimeters) wide
  • Second-degree burns on the hands, feet, face, groin, buttocks, or over a major joint

You can have more than one type of burn at a time.

Major burns need urgent medical care. This can help prevent scarring, disability, and deformity.

Burns on the face, hands, feet, and genitals can be particularly serious.

Children under age 4 and adults over age 60 have a higher chance of complications and death from severe burns because their skin tends to be thinner than in other age groups.

Causes of burns from most to least common are:

  • Fire/flame
  • Scalding from steam or hot liquids
  • Touching hot objects
  • Electrical burns
  • Chemical burns

Burns can be the result of any of the following:

  • House and industrial fires
  • Car accidents
  • Playing with matches
  • Faulty space heaters, furnaces, or industrial equipment
  • Unsafe use of firecrackers and other fireworks
  • Kitchen accidents, such as a child grabbing a hot iron or touching the stove or oven

You can also burn your airways if you breathe in smoke, steam, superheated air, or chemical fumes in poorly ventilated areas.

Burn symptoms can include:

  • Blisters that are either intact (unbroken) or have ruptured and are leaking fluid.
  • Pain -- How much pain you have is unrelated to the level of burn. The most serious burns can be painless.
  • Peeling skin.
  • Shock -- Watch for pale and clammy skin, weakness, blue lips and fingernails, and a decrease in alertness.
  • Swelling.
  • Red, white, or charred skin.

You may have an airway burn if you have:

  • Burns on the head, face, neck, eyebrows, or nose hairs
  • Burned lips and mouth
  • Coughing
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Dark, black-stained mucus
  • Voice changes
  • Wheezing

Before giving first aid, it is important to determine what type of burn the person has. If you are not sure, treat it as a major burn. Serious burns need medical care right away. Call your local emergency number or 911.

MINOR BURNS

If the skin is unbroken:

  • Run cool water over the area of the burn or soak it in a cool water bath (not ice water). Keep the area under water for at least 5 to 30 minutes. A clean, cold, wet towel will help reduce pain.
  • Calm and reassure the person.
  • After flushing or soaking the burn, cover it with a dry, sterile bandage or clean dressing.
  • Protect the burn from pressure and friction.
  • Over-the-counter ibuprofen or acetaminophen can help relieve pain and swelling. DO NOT give aspirin to children under 12.
  • Once the skin has cooled, moisturizing lotion containing aloe and an antibiotic also can help.

Minor burns will often heal without further treatment. Make sure the person is up to date on their tetanus immunization.

MAJOR BURNS

If someone is on fire, tell the person to stop, drop, and roll. Then, follow these steps:

  • Wrap the person in thick material; such as a wool or cotton coat, rug, or blanket. This helps put out the flames.
  • Pour water on the person.
  • Call 911 or your local emergency number.
  • Make sure that the person is no longer touching any burning or smoking materials.
  • DO NOT remove burned clothing that is stuck to the skin.
  • Make sure the person is breathing. If necessary, begin rescue breathing and CPR.
  • Cover the burn area with a dry sterile bandage (if available) or clean cloth. A sheet will do if the burned area is large. DO NOT apply any ointments. Avoid breaking burn blisters.
  • If fingers or toes have been burned, separate them with dry, sterile, non-stick bandages.
  • Raise the body part that is burned above the level of the heart.
  • Protect the burn area from pressure and friction.
  • If an electrical injury may have caused the burn, DO NOT touch the victim directly. Use a non-metallic object to separate the person away from exposed wires before starting first aid.

You will also need to prevent shock. If the person does not have a head, neck, back, or leg injury, follow these steps:

  • Lay the person flat
  • Raise the feet about 12 inches (30 centimeters)
  • Cover the person with a coat or blanket

Continue to monitor the person's pulse, rate of breathing, and blood pressure until medical help arrives.

Things that should not be done for burns include:

  • DO NOT apply oil, butter, ice, medicines, cream, oil spray, or any household remedy to a severe burn.
  • DO NOT breathe, blow, or cough on the burn.
  • DO NOT disturb blistered or dead skin.
  • DO NOT remove clothing that is stuck to the skin.
  • DO NOT give the person anything by mouth if there is a severe burn.
  • DO NOT place a severe burn in cold water. This can cause shock.
  • DO NOT place a pillow under the person's head if there is an airways burn. This can close the airways.

Call 911 or the local emergency number if:

  • The burn is very large, about the size of your palm or larger.
  • The burn is severe (third degree).
  • You aren't sure how serious it is.
  • The burn is caused by chemicals or electricity.
  • The person shows signs of shock.
  • The person breathed in smoke.
  • Physical abuse is the known or suspected cause of the burn.
  • There are other symptoms associated with the burn.

For minor burns, call your health care provider if you still have pain after 48 hours.

Call a provider right away if signs of infection develop. These signs include:

  • Drainage or pus from the burned skin
  • Fever
  • Increased pain
  • Red streaks spreading from the burn
  • Swollen lymph nodes

Also call a provider right away if symptoms of dehydration occur with a burn:

  • Decreased urination
  • Dizziness
  • Dry skin
  • Headache
  • Lightheadedness
  • Nausea (with or without vomiting)
  • Thirst

Children, older people, and anyone with a weakened immune system (for example, from HIV) should be seen right away.

The provider will perform a history and physical examination. Tests and procedures will be done as needed.

These may include:

  • Airway and breathing support, including a face mask, tube through the mouth into the trachea, or breathing machine (ventilator) for serious burns or those involving the face or airway
  • Blood and urine tests if shock or other complications are present
  • Chest x-ray for face or airway burns
  • ECG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing), if shock or other complications are present
  • Intravenous fluids (fluids through a vein), if shock or other complications are present
  • Medicines for pain relief and to prevent infection
  • Ointments or creams applied to the burned areas
  • Tetanus immunization, if not up to date

The outcome will depend on the type (degree), extent, and location of the burn. It also depends upon whether internal organs have been affected, and if other trauma has occurred. Burns can leave permanent scars. They can also be more sensitive to temperature and light than normal skin. Sensitive areas, such as the eyes, nose, or ears, may be badly injured and have lost normal function.

With airway burns, the person may have less breathing capacity and permanent lung damage. Severe burns that affect the joints may result in contractures, leaving the joint with decreased movement and a reduction in function.

To help prevent burns:

  • Install smoke alarms in your home. Check and change batteries regularly.
  • Teach children about fire safety and the danger of matches and fireworks.
  • Keep children from climbing on top of a stove or grabbing hot items such as irons and oven doors.
  • Turn pot handles toward the back of the stove so that children can't grab them and they cannot accidentally be knocked over.
  • Place fire extinguishers in key locations at home, work, and school.
  • Remove electrical cords from floors and keep them out of reach.
  • Know about and practice fire escape routes at home, work, and school.
  • Set the water heater temperature at 120°F (48.8°C) or less.

First degree burn; Second degree burn; Third degree burn

Christiani DC. Physical and chemical injuries of the lungs. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine. 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 94.

Singer AJ, Lee CC. Thermal burns. In: Walls RM, Hockberger RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 56.

Voigt CD, Celis M, Voigt DW. Care of outpatient burns. In: Herndon DN, ed. Total Burn Care. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 6.

Updated by: Ramin Fathi, MD, FAAD, Director, Phoenix Surgical Dermatology Group, Phoenix, AZ. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial Director, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.

Источник: https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000030.htm

How to treat a first-degree, minor burn

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Burn Pictures: A Close Look at First, Second, and Third Degree

Second-Degree Burn With Swelling

Blisters are the most common sign of a second-degree burn. Most symptoms of a second-degree burn are similar to first-degree burns. However, second-degree burns will also have:

  • Blisters
  • Severe pain
  • Sloughing, or when the top layer of skin falls away
  • Swelling
  • Weeping fluid, or fluid that oozes out

A second-degree burn is considered severe when it can potentially cause a loss of function in the the part of the body burned. When emergency healthcare providers determine the severity of a burn, they look to determine the extent of the body burned.

Second-degree burns that involve the face, hands, feet, genitalia, or major joints are considered severe and require immediate attention.

A swollen, second-degree burn that goes all the way around an arm or leg can also put pressure on nerve cells and restrict blood flow to other parts of the body that aren't even involved in the burned area. This is known as compartment syndrome.

In the worst-case scenario, compartment syndrome can cause tissue to die and give off toxins that increase the overall damage. If left untreated, this can lead to amputation, or worse, fatality.

Источник: https://www.verywellhealth.com/burn-pictures-4020409
1st degree burn on foot

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