paula modersohn becker bremen

Germany > Bremen (state) > Bremen > Böttcherstrasse Museums > Paula Modersohn-Becker Museum. Local name: Paula Modersohn-Becker Museum. Renowned German expressionist painter Paula Modersohn-Becker was born artistic endeavors as a student in Bremen, and at the age of 18. File:Denkmal Paula Modersohn-Becker - Bremen, Wallanlagen (1).jpg. Language; Watch · Edit.
paula modersohn becker bremen

In episode 58 of The Great Women Artists Podcast, Katy Hessel interviews the esteemed art historian, Diane Radycki, on the groundbreaking German Modernist PAULA MODERSOHN BECKER!!!

[This episode is brought to you by Alighieri jewellery: www.alighieri.co.uk

Paula Modersohn-Becker Museum, Bremen

  • Paula Modersohn-Becker paintings are beautiful. Museum is not beautiful.

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  • There aren't many of Paula Modersohn-Becker's artworks here, the name of the museum and the picture used to advertise it is misleading. There were exhibitions of other artists works, which I enjoyed, but I was disappointed there was only one room of Paula's.

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  • The view alone bring YOU 400 years back Paula Modersohn-Becker (8 February 1876 – 30 November 1907)[1] was a German painter and one of the most important representatives of early expressionism. Her brief career was cut short when she died from postpartum embolism at the age of 31. She is becoming recognized as the first female painter to paint nude self-portraits.[2] She was an important member of the artistic movement of modernism at the start of the twentieth century. Paula

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  • The picture says it all!!!

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  • Great collections and must hear the bell at 15:00

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  • Источник: https://www.inspirock.com/germany/bremen/paula-modersohn-becker-museum-a1336572613

    Paula Modersohn-Becker Museum

    Museum in Bremen, Germany

    The Paula Modersohn-Becker Museum in Bremen, Germany, is the first museum in the world devoted to a female artist. Modersohn-Becker (1876–1907) was one of the most important early Expressionists, and the museum features key works from each of her creative periods.

    History[edit]

    Construction of the museum was commissioned by the businessman and art patron Ludwig Roselius, who assigned the sculptor, craftsman and architect Bernhard Hoetger to design it. Hoetger had become acquainted with Modersohn-Becker while in Paris, and created a unique Brick Expressionist building in her memory. Opened in 1927, the museum now counts as one of the key works of expressionist architecture in Germany. The collection features works covering the artist's entire career, from the early pictures of her training years in Berlin to the paintings she created in Paris in 1906-07, in which she most fully realised her artistic vision.

    In 1935 local Nazis attacked the art and architecture of the Paula Modersohn-Becker Museum.[1] Ludwig Roselius ignored this but Hitler denounced the art at the September 1936 Nuremberg NSDAP rally and Roselius contemplated suicide. Barbara Goette[2] intervened on Roselius' behalf and Hitler declared the Böttcherstrasse as a monument of 'degenerate art'; the offensive works, including the Paula Modersohn-Becker Museum would not have to be demolished. In exchange Ludwig Roselius pumped capital into Focke-Wulf aircraft company.[3]

    Important paintings and drawings from Roselius's collection are supplemented by works on loan from the Paula Modersohn-Becker Foundation. Besides Paula's works, the museum also owns the most extensive collection of works by Bernhard Hoetger (1874–1949). The rooms that he designed are now used for special exhibitions of classic modern art.

    Since 1973, the building has been listed under the monument protection act.[4]

    The museum is run by the Böttcherstraße GmbH company, named after its location on the paula modersohn becker bremen significant Böttcherstraße.

    Since 2005, Jenny Holzer's electronic homage For Paula Modersohn-Becker has been permanently installed in the stairwell.[5]

    See also[edit]

    Notes[edit]

    External links[edit]

    Coordinates: 53°04′30″N8°48′21″E / 53.07500°N 8.80583°E / 53.07500; 8.80583

    Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paula_Modersohn-Becker_Museum
    Biography Curriculum Bibliography
    paula modersohn becker bremen colspan="2">
     

    1876
    Minna Hermine Paula Becker is born in Dresden on 8th February as the third of seven children. Her father, Carl Woldemar Becker (Odessa, 31.1.1841 – Bremen, 30.11.1901), works as construction and operations inspector for the Berlin-Dresden railway, and later as construction manager of the Prussian Railway Administration in Bremen. Her mother, Mathilde Becker (Lübeck, 3.11.1852 – Bremen, 22.1.1926), comes from an aristocratic family von Bültzingslöwen.

    1888
    The Becker family moves to Bremen and immediately takes a keen interest in the city's literary and artistic life.

    1892
    Paula Becker spends seven months in England, staying with her father’s sister, Marie Hill, on a country estate near London. She takes her first lessons in drawing from plaster models at the “St. John’s Wood Art School&rdquo.
    “I shall have lessons there every day from ten until four. At first, I shall only be drawing, beginning with very simple arabesques and other designs. If I progress, then I shall make charcoal sketches after Greek plaster casts. [.] If I advance further, I shall begin drawing and painting from live models.” (To her parents, 21.10.1892).

    1893–95
    In accordance with her father’s wish to render his daughter economically independent, Paula Becker continues her education at the seminar for women teachers in Bremen; she completes the training on 18.9.1895. Parallel to this, she takes painting and drawing lessons.
    “I am having such splendid lessons with Wiegandt. I am working from live models, in charcoal. [.] Ever since, I have been drawing my own faithful reflection in the mirror.” (To her brother, Kurt Becker, 26.4.1893).
    In April 1895, Paula Becker sees the first exhibition of works by the Worpswede painters in the Kunsthalle Bremen. She mentions Fritz Mackensen, Otto Modersohn, and Heinrich Vogeler.
    “You must have also heard of the Sermon on the Heath, which one of them, a man named Mackensen, painted while sitting in a glass wagon. [.] Naturally, everything is extremely realistic, but it is still wonderful. The only thing I cannot completely understand is the perspective. [.] the whole scene seems to slope away as if it were falling? I wonder if that is the way things really are or whether the way we foreshorten perspective is just something that has been artificially paula modersohn becker bremen in us.” (To her brother Kurt Becker, 27.4.1895).

    1896
    In April/May she attends a course at the school of drawing and painting of the “Verein der Berliner Künstlerinnen und Kunstfreundinnen” in Berlin, which was founded in 1867.
    “Four afternoons a week are devoted to drawing instructions, which completely occupy my thoughts. [.] Whenever I talk with somebody I try hard to see just what kind of shadow his or her nose casts, or how the deep shadow under a certain cheekbone starts out and then gradually blends into the highlights. This gradual blending is the hardest thing for me to capture. I am still drawing shadows much too distinctly. Instead of emphasizing what is important I find that I am paula modersohn becker bremen. [.] My heads are still too wooden, too stiff.” (To her parents, 23.4.1896).
    “When I make my pilgrimage down the Potsdamerstraße on my way to drawing school, I study the thousand faces that pass me by and I try with a glance to discover the essential thing about each of them. [.] Then I try to see everything in two dimensions, to dissolve curved lines into angular lines.” (Journal [?], prior paula modersohn becker bremen 18.5.1896).
    In October, she begins an eighteen months training period at the same school: she attends the portrait class of Jacob Alberts and Martin Körte, the life drawing class of Ernst Friedrich Hausmann and takes landscape lessons with Ludwig Dettmann.
    She lives in the house of her uncle, Wulf von Bültzingslöwen, in Berlin-Schlachtensee and uses her free time to pursue her studies in the museums.
    “I am becoming very familiar with the German masters now, and with Holbein – but Rembrandt still remains the greatest.” (To her parents, 23.4.1896) She spends her summer vacations in Hindelang and visits the Pinakothek and the Schackgalerie in Munich on her way home.

    1897
    In February, Paula Becker enters the painting class of Jeanna Bauck, where she paints mainly portraits.
    “I love oil colours. They are so rich and powerful, so wonderful to work with after those shy pastels. [.] Yesterday I began working in oils under Hausmann, too. He has us work so differently from Jeanna Bauck. While she teaches us to work down from the brightest tones, taking white as the norm, he has us work up from the darkest tones, from shadows. The deeper the shadows, the brighter the saturated light must be. Rembrandt got such fantastic effects from light. All that came from the depth of his shadows. Living skin in daylight is so dazzling, so luminous, that it’s nearly impossible to paint it bright enough.” (To her parents, 14.5.1897).
    She often visits art exhibitions at the galleries of Schulte, Gurlitt, and Keller & Reiner. In the Berlin Kupferstichkabinett, she sees drawings by Michelangelo and Botticelli’s illustrations for Dante’s “Divine Comedy&rdquo. From the end of July to the end of August, she stays in Worpswede for the first time, together with her friend, the paintress Paula Ritter.
    “Today I painted my first plein air portrait at the clay pit, a little blond and blue-eyed girl. The way the little thing stood in the yellow sand was simply beautiful–a bright and shimmering thing to see. It made my heart leap. Painting people is indeed more beautiful than painting a landscape.” (To her parents, Worpswede, August 1897), and “This morning I was painting an old man from the poorhouse. It went very well. He sat there like a stick with the grey sky as background.” (To her parents, late August 1897).
    She sets up a studio for herself in an old stable building at her parents’ house on Schwachhauser Chaussee for the summer months. Her brothers and sisters sit for her as models.
    At the beginning of October she travels to Dresden for the “Internationale Kunstausstellung” with works by Carrière, Degas, Ensor, Monet, Pissarro, Sisley as well as Böcklin, Hodler, Kalckreuth, Klinger, Leibl, Liebermann, Segantini and the Worpswede artists.
    In early December, she travels to Vienna for the wedding of her cousin Lily Stammann to sculptor Carl Bernewitz. She visits the museums and the Liechtenstein gallery, mentioning Moretto, Titian, Rubens, Dürer, Cranach, Holbein, Leonardo and van Dyck.

    1898
    Continuation of her studies in Berlin. She sees an exhibition of artist lithographs at the Lichthof of the Kunstgewerbemuseum, where – amongst others – works by Puvis de Chavannes, Manet, Pissarro, Redon, Renoir, Sérusier, Toulouse-Lautrec, Valloton and Munch are shown. She sees works by Rippl-Rónai at Gurlitt’s gallery and at the Schulte gallery an exhibition of the “Elfer”, i.e. predecessors of the Berlin Secession as Liebermann, Alberts, von Hofmann and Klinger, – she mentions Leistikow in her letters. A Munch exhibition takes place at Keller & Reiner in April. On a trip to Leipzig, Paula Becker visits Klinger’s studio.
    At the end of May, she ends her studies in Berlin.
    In June/July, she travels to Norway with her uncle Wulf von Bültzingslöwen. In September, she moves to Worpswede. On her first evening in Worpswede she writes to her aunt Cora von Bültzingslöwen: “I am savouring my life with every breath I draw, and in the distance Paris gleams and shimmers. I truly believe that my most secret and ardent wish is going to come true.” (7.9.1898).
    Friendship with the sculptor Clara Westhoff, who will marry Rainer Maria Rilke in 1901. She is taught by Fritz Mackensen, who has already accepted Clara Westhoff and Marie Bock as pupils. She produces lifesize charcoal and red chalk drawings.
    “Every few days Mackensen comes over to paula modersohn becker bremen me his excellent critique.” (Journal, 18.10.1898). As Paula modersohn becker bremen Reylaender recalls: “[.] the large nude study she had begun was on the easel. Mackensen corrected her, asking with a sharp look whether she really saw what she had done there in nature itself. Her answer was a strange one: a quick ‘yes’ and then a hesitant ‘no’, while apparently gazing into the distance.” (Ottilie Reylaender-Böhme, in: Hetsch 1932, p. 34).

    1899
    Besides the life-size drawings from models, her sketchbooks are filling up with landscape drawings, figure studies and composition drafts. She completes her first paintings as well as a number of etchings, which she prints using the hand press at Vogeler’s home, “Barkenhoff&rdquo. As a letter to her parents indicates, she regards Worpswede merely as a temporary place to stay in order to advance her studies:
    “I believe that I’ll grow away from here. Those with whom I can stand to speak about things close to my heart and feelings are becoming fewer and fewer.” (12.2.1899).
    As from June, she keeps a human skeleton in her studio for anatomical studies. She reads a lot, classic literature but above all J.P. Jacobsen and Henrik Ibsen. In August, she travels to Switzerland with her aunt Marie Hill. The return journey takes them to Munich, Nuremberg and Leipzig, where Clara Westhoff is working with Klinger, as well as to Dresden to the “Deutsche Kunstausstellung”, in which the Worpswede painters are represented with 22 paintings. In December, together with Marie Bock and Clara Westhoff, she exhibits some studies in the Kunsthalle Bremen, which receive an tioga state bank newfield review from painter and critic Arthur Fitger. He declares their works as showing a “wretched lack of talent.” (Review from the Weser Zeitung (Bremen), 20. December 1899).

    1900
    The night of New Year’s Eve, Paula Becker travels to Paris for the first time. There she meets Clara Westhoff, who wishes to study at the school of sculpture set up by Rodin. Initially, the two of them live in the Grand Hôtel de la Haute Loire at 203, Boulevard Raspail. At the end of January, Paula Becker moves to 9, Rue Campagne Première. She studies at the private Académie Colarossi in Rue de la Grande Chaumière and attends the life drawing class. “The critiques seem to be objective and good. One does not work life-size here, but in the same format as in Berlin.” (To her parents, 11.1.1900). “I have registered for a morning course in life drawing. At the beginning of each week Girardot or Collins come and criticize the accuracy of our work. Toward the end of the week, Courtois comes and criticizes primarily the more picturesque aspects of what we have done, tonal values etc. [.] In the afternoon there is a course in croquis also from the nude in which for two hours we draw models in four different poses. This is very constructive for understanding movement.” (To her father, 18.1.1900). In addition, she and Clara Westhoff attend the free anatomy lessons at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. “In anatomy class, we are now learning about the construction of muscles in the human body. Two live models and a corpse are used for demonstration purposes. It’s extremely interesting, but unfortunately the sight of the corpse, and never fails to give me a headache.” (To her parents, 22.1.1900).
    Paula Becker wins the “concours” of her semester. “So, I have a medal and am now a big wig in the school. All four professors voted for me.” (To her parents, 3.3.1900).
    She is very impressed by paintings of Cézanne, which she discovers, still standing on the floor at the gallery of Ambroise Vollard, at 6, Rue Lafitte, after the exhibition in December.
    “One day she ordered me to join her on a walk along the opposite bank of the Seine, because she wanted to show me something special there. She led me to the art dealer Vollard and in his shop she began– since no one disturbed us – to turn around the paintings leaning against the wall and to select some with great certainty, which had a new, intense simplicity resembling Paula’s own approach. These were paintings by Cézanne, which we were both seeing for the first time. We had never even heard his name before. Paula had discovered him in her own particular way, and she regarded this discovery as an unexpected confirmation of her own artistic searching.” (Clara Rilke-Westhoff, in: Hetsch 1932, p. 43).
    During her frequent visits to the Louvre, she copies paintings and sculptures into a sketchbook, which she continues to use until 1906. In her letters she mentions Titian, Botticelli, Fiesole (Fra Angelico), Velázquez, Rembrandt, Holbein, della Robbia, and Donatello and among the more recent masters: Corot, Rousseau, Millet, Daubigny, Degas, Puvis de Chavannes, Courbet, and Monet. In an exhibition at Georges Petit’s gallery, she sees works by the Breton painters Simon as well as by Cottet, whom she visits in his studio. In March a comprehensive exhibition of Seurat takes place in the rooms of the “Revue Blanche&rdquo. She meets Emil Nolde and Emmi Walther, a paintress from Dachau, and visits the world exposition and Rodin’s sculpture pavilion at the Pont de l’Alma. In June, Otto Modersohn, Fritz and Hermine Overbeck and Marie Bock from Worpswede travel to Paris to visit Paula Becker. During their visit to Paris, Otto Modersohn’s wife Helene dies in Worpswede. Paula Becker returns to Worpswede at the end of June and rents a space with the farmer Brünjes in Ostendorf. She has the walls painted in bright colours: ultramarine at the bottom and turquoise at the top, separated by a band of redbrown. Until her final days, this coloured division of the wall often forms the background to her still-life works and figurative compositions. Rilke also refers to the rooms with Brünjes as the “lily studio” due to a fabric hanging on the wall with a bourbon lily. On Sundays the group of friends meets in the “Weißer Saal” at Vogeler’s “Barkenhoff”: Otto Modersohn and Paula Becker, Heinrich Vogeler and his future wife Martha Schröder, Clara Westhoff, Marie Bock, and Paula’s sisters Milly and Herma. The poets Carl Hauptmann and Rainer Maria Rilke are frequent guests. On 12th September Paula Becker and Otto Modersohn become engaged. In October, she rents a studio next to Otto Modersohn’s house, previously used by Ottilie Reylaender, who is leaving for Paris. Apart from a few figurative works, Paula Becker is almost exclusively painting landscapes now.

    The Foundation Publications Exhibitions Adress
    DE FR IT


    Self-Portrait, 1897.
    Gouache 24,5 x 26,5 cm



    Drawing after an Egyptian Woman Bust, London, 1892.
    Charcoal, 56,5 x 34 cm



    Standing Male Nude.
    Charcoal, 68,5 x 35,5 cm



    Self-Portrait, Berlin 1897.
    Pastel, 45,8 x 30,8 cm



    Girl with Fire Lilies, Worpswede 1897.
    Canvas 39,3 x 48 cm



    Breastfeeding Peasant Woman, 1898.
    Charcoal and red chalk, 80 x 46 cm
    (see letter PMB 16.12.1898)



    Woman’s Head in Profile, 1899.
    Charcoal and Pastel, 37 x 62,9 cm



    Standing Male Nude. Worpswede, c. 1899.
    Charcoal, 189,5 x 84,5 cm



    Standing Child Nude with the Skeleton Drawn In, 1899.
    Charcoal, 145 x 111 cm (see letter June 1899)



    Grey Landscape with Moor Canal, 1899.
    46 x 73,5 cm



    Bilderrätsel »Medaille«, Paris 1900.
    Watercolour and China ink, 13,9 x 8,7 cm



    Standing Female nude, Seen from the Back, 1900.
    72,3 x 31 cm



    Moon above landscape, c. 1900.
    39 x 53 cm
    Источник: https://www.paulamodersohnbeckerstiftung.de/E_biographie.html
    use the code TGWA at checkout for 10% off!]

    And WOW, is this one of the most incredible stories in art history. A precursor to German Expressionism, Modersohn Becker was not only one of the first German artists to bring the intense and dazzling colours and brushstrokes to her home country, but the first woman paula modersohn becker bremen in HISTORY to paint herself nude!! 

    Born in 1876, Modersohn Becker was raised in Bremen, attended art school in St John's Wood, London, went on to study at the traditional Society of Berlin Women Artists, and after spending a summer visiting the Worpswede art colony, settled with the group from 1898. However, she wasn't satisfied. 

    On the stroke of a new century, 1 January 1900, Modersohn Becker took a train heading for Paris, and it walmart money card account login here where she became enraptured by the French Modernists, their vibrant, fragmented forms. But most importantly, where she was exposed to drawing from the nude figure!

    Taking up portraits and scenes of peasant life, Modersohn-Becker’s work exuded strong, sun-drenched intense colouring and dynamism, full of expression and emotion (in 1902 she recalled, ‘personal feeling is the main thing’). But having returned to Germany, during this time she was stifled by her marriage, sucked into Worpswede life and longing for Paris.

    Retuning for the last time in 1906, she abandoned her life: ‘I have left Otto Modersohn and stand poised between my new life. What will it be like? And what will I be like in my new life? Now it is all about to happen.’ 

    During spring and summer of 1906, Modersohn-Becker produced dozens of paintings. Predominantly self-portraits and portraits of un-idealised, unconventional, and un-sensual looking women, she filled with canvases with simplified flattened forms. Radickye makes the convincing case that Modersohn Becker was even the influence behind Picasso's Gertrude Stein!

    Immersed in her life in Paris, attending exhibitions, Modersohn-Becker was enjoying life as a free woman. But having returned to Germany in 1907, where she was to give birth that October, aged 31, she died just a few days later, leaving behind over 700 paintings and 1000 drawings.
    Don't miss this AMAZING story as told by Radickye – the woman responsible for MoMA's acquisition of a Self Portrait by Paula.

    Further links:
    Diane's book!
    https://yalebooks.co.uk/display.asp?k=9780300185300https://www.moma.org/artists/4037
    https://artsandculture.google.com/exhibit/paula-modersohn-becker-kunsthalle-bremen/UAKCairRWHB0KQ?hl=en
    https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/paula-modersohn-becker-modern-paintings-missing-piece
    https://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/26/arts/design/paula-modersohn-becker-and-her-thwarted-ambitions.html
    https://www.newyorker.com/books/page-turner/paula-modersohn-becker-modern-paintings-missing-piece


    Follow us:
    Katy Hessel: @thegreatwomenartists / @katy.hessel
    Sound editing by Laura Hendry 
    Artwork by @thisisaliceskinner
    Music by Ben Wetherfield

    https://www.thegreatwomenartists.com/

    Источник: https://podcasts.apple.com/gb/podcast/diane-radycki-on-paula-modersohn-becker/id1480259187?i=1000515088928

    Paula modersohn becker bremen -

    Paula Modersohn-Becker

    Paula Modersohn-Becker (8 February 1876 – 30 November 1907) was a German painter and one of the most important representatives of early expressionism. Her brief career was cut short when she died from postpartum embolism at the age of 31. She is becoming recognized as the first female painter to paint nude self-portraits. She was an important member of the artistic movement of modernism at the start of the twentieth century.

    Becker was born and grew up in Dresden-Friedrichstadt. She was the third of seven children in her family. Her father Carl Woldemar Becker (January 31, 1841 Odessa – November 30, 1901, Bremen), the son of a Russian university professor of French, was employed as an engineer with the German railway. Her mother, Mathilde (November 3, 1852 Lübeck – January 22, 1926 Bremen) was from an aristocratic family "von Bültzingslöwen", and her parents provided their children a cultured and intellectual household environment.

    In 1888 the family moved from Dresden to Bremen. While visiting a maternal aunt in London, Becker received her first instruction in drawing at St John's Wood Art School. In 1893 she was introduced to works of the artists' circle of Worpswede; Otto Modersohn, Fritz Mackensen, Fritz Overbeck and Heinrich Vogeler presented their paintings in Bremen's Art Museum, Kunsthalle Bremen. In addition to her teacher training in Bremen in 1893–1895, Becker received private instruction in painting. In 1896 she participated in a course for painting and drawing sponsored by the Verein der Berliner Künstlerinnen (Union of Berlin Female Artists) which offered art studies to women.

    Becker's friend Clara Westhoff left Bremen in early 1899 to study in Paris. By December of that year, Becker followed her there, and in 1900 she studied at the Académie Colarossi in the Latin Quarter.

    In April 1900 the great Centennial Exhibition was held in Paris. On this occasion Fritz Overbeck and his wife, along with Otto Modersohn, arrived in June. Modersohn's ailing wife Helen had been left in Worpswede and died during his trip to Paris. With this news Modersohn and the Overbecks rushed back to Germany.

    In 1901 Paula married Otto Modersohn and became stepmother to Otto's two-year-old daughter, Elsbeth Modersohn, the child from his first marriage. She functioned in that capacity for two years, then relocated to Paris again in 1903. She and Modersohn lived mostly apart from that time forward until 1907, when she returned to Germany full-time, apparently in hopes of conceiving her own child.

    The marriage with Modersohn remained unconsummated until their final year together. By 1906, Becker (now known as Paula Modersohn-Becker) had reversed her previous desire to avoid having children and began an affair with a well-known Parisian "ladies' man". However, by early 1907 she returned to her husband, became pregnant, and in November she delivered a daughter, Mathilde.

    After the pregnancy, she complained of severe leg pain, so the physician ordered bed rest. After 18 days he told her to get up and begin moving, but apparently, an embolism had formed in her leg, and with her mobility, broke off and then caused her death within hours.

    This is a part of the Wikipedia article used under the Creative Commons Attribution-Sharealike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). The full text of the article is here →


    More ...
    Источник: https://www.wikiart.org/en/paula-modersohn-becker

    Paula Modersohn-Becker: L’Intensité d’un Regard

    The Artist’s Life as
    A Short, Intense Celebration

    ParisUpdate-3.Paula Modersohn-Becker

    “Jeune Fille Tenant des Fleurs Jaunes dans un Verre” (1902). © Paula-Modersohn-Becker-Stiftung, Brême

    Paris museums are hosting a welcome spate of exhibitions of artists whose work has been more or less neglected in France until now, with a George Desvallières retrospective at the Petit Palais and one of Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso at the Grand Palais. Like the latter, Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907), subject of the exhibition “Paula Modersohn-Becker: L’Intensité d’un Regard” at the Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, was a painter who lived a tragically short life and who drew her inspiration from the artistic volcano that was Paris at the turn of the century.

    Also like Souza-Cardoso, Paula Becker was born (in Dresden) to a well-heeled family. Her father was an engineer, and her mother came from an aristocratic family. As a teenager, she took drawing courses at St. John’s Wood Art School in London, and she later studied painting at a private art school for women in Berlin (Germany’s School of Fine Arts did not accept female students until 1919).

    A turning point in her life came in 1898, when she moved to Worspwede, near Bremen, home to a community of artists who rejected academic strictures and looked to nature, like the Barbizon School in France, for inspiration, painting from life en plein air. They were also interested in depicting the local peasants in all their “authenticity.”

    Becker was influenced in both her artistic and personal life by this community. She became close friends with the sculptor Clara Westhoff, who later married the poet Rainer Maria Rilke and was a student of Rodin in Paris. Becker also met her husband-to-be, the artist Otto Modersohn, in Worspwede.

    The real upheaval in her life and art came in 1900, however, when she visited Paris for the first time and was able to participate in life-drawing classes with nude models and was exposed to the work of a number of artists who were to greatly influence her own work, including Cézanne, Van Gogh, Gauguin and Rodin.

    Eager to break away from the Worspwede group and find her own way, she returned a number of times to Paris (at one point even separating from her husband), stimulated by the excitement of the big city, the courses she took and the artists she met.

    Her paintings have a haunting strangeness to them, whether the murky portraits of peasants done in Worspwede or the more brilliantly colored paintings with simplified shapes made after her introduction to the Parisian art world.

    The exhibition is divided into categories:

    ParisUpdate-7.Paula Modersohn-Becker

    “Portrait de Jeune Fille, les Doigts Écartés devant la Poitrine” (c. 1905) © Paula-Modersohn-Becker-Stiftung, Brême

    paintings of children, of mothers and babies, self-portraits, landscapes and still lifes. Many of the faces have a mask-like appearance, even those she made before seeing the famous Fayum portraits in the Louvre.

    She was definitely a woman ahead of her

    ParisUpdate-13.Paula-Modersohn-Becker

    “Mère Nue en Buste, avec un Enfant sur son Bras II” (1906) © Museum Ostwall im Dortmunder U, Dortmund

    time. She is thought to be the first to paint full-length portraits of naked women, including herself, and is considered a precursor to German Expressionism. Some of her unflinching self-portraits in hieratic poses made me think of those of Frida Kahlo.

    Her still lifes show the influence of Cézanne without imitating him, notably the apples in a beautiful big still life with a pumpkin and a ginger jar (c. 1905). They also anticipate Matisse: in 1904, long before Matisse attempted it, she was trying to capture the

    ParisUpdate-12.Paula Modersohn-Becker

    “Still Life with Goldfish Bowl” (1906). © Paula-Modersohn-Becker-Stiftung, Brême

    movement of goldfish in a bowl in the vibrant “Still Life with Goldfish Bowl” (1906).

    Modersohn-Becker eventually returned to her husband and had the baby she had been longing for. Eighteen days later, only 31 years old, she died of a pulmonary embolism. Her last word was “Schade” (“What a pity!”).

    It certainly was a pity that, as with Souza-Cardoso, we will never know where this inventive young painter would have taken her work. Her enthusiasm is summed up well in this almost premonitory quote: “My life is a celebration,” she wrote in 1900, “a short, intense celebration. My powers of perception are becoming finer, as if I were supposed to absorb everything in the few years that are still offered me, everything…. I suck everything up into me.”

    Her art may have been neglected since her death, but she has been immortalized in another way as well. Her friend Rilke, deeply moved by her death, was inspired to write his “Requiem for a Friend.”

    Heidi Ellison

    Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris: 11, avenue du Président Wilson, 75116 Paris. Métro: Alma-Marceau or Iéna. Tel.: 01 53 67 40 00. Open Tuesday-Sunday, 10 a.m.-6 p.m. (Thursday until 10 p.m.). Closed on public holidays. Admission: €10. Through August 21, 2016. www.mam.paris.fr

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    Источник: https://www.parisupdate.com/paula-modersohn-becker-l-intensite-d-un-regard/

    In episode 58 of The Great Women Artists Podcast, Katy Hessel interviews the esteemed art historian, Diane Radycki, on the groundbreaking German Modernist PAULA MODERSOHN BECKER!!!

    [This episode is brought to you by Alighieri jewellery: www.alighieri.co.uk

    Biography Curriculum Bibliography
     

    1876
    Minna Hermine Paula Becker is born in Dresden on 8th February as the third of seven children. Her father, Carl Woldemar Becker (Odessa, 31.1.1841 – Bremen, 30.11.1901), works as construction and operations inspector for the Berlin-Dresden railway, and later as construction manager of the Prussian Railway Administration in Bremen. Her mother, Mathilde Becker (Lübeck, 3.11.1852 – Bremen, 22.1.1926), comes from an aristocratic family von Bültzingslöwen.

    1888
    The Becker family moves to Bremen and immediately takes a keen interest in the city's literary and artistic life.

    1892
    Paula Becker spends seven months in England, staying with her father’s sister, Marie Hill, on a country estate near London. She takes her first lessons in drawing from plaster models at the “St. John’s Wood Art School”.
    “I shall have lessons there every day from ten until four. At first, I shall only be drawing, beginning with very simple arabesques and other designs. If I progress, then I shall make charcoal sketches after Greek plaster casts. [...] If I advance further, I shall begin drawing and painting from live models.” (To her parents, 21.10.1892).

    1893–95
    In accordance with her father’s wish to render his daughter economically independent, Paula Becker continues her education at the seminar for women teachers in Bremen; she completes the training on 18.9.1895. Parallel to this, she takes painting and drawing lessons.
    “I am having such splendid lessons with Wiegandt. I am working from live models, in charcoal. [...] Ever since, I have been drawing my own faithful reflection in the mirror.” (To her brother, Kurt Becker, 26.4.1893).
    In April 1895, Paula Becker sees the first exhibition of works by the Worpswede painters in the Kunsthalle Bremen. She mentions Fritz Mackensen, Otto Modersohn, and Heinrich Vogeler.
    “You must have also heard of the Sermon on the Heath, which one of them, a man named Mackensen, painted while sitting in a glass wagon. [...] Naturally, everything is extremely realistic, but it is still wonderful. The only thing I cannot completely understand is the perspective. [...] the whole scene seems to slope away as if it were falling? I wonder if that is the way things really are or whether the way we foreshorten perspective is just something that has been artificially trained in us.” (To her brother Kurt Becker, 27.4.1895).

    1896
    In April/May she attends a course at the school of drawing and painting of the “Verein der Berliner Künstlerinnen und Kunstfreundinnen” in Berlin, which was founded in 1867.
    “Four afternoons a week are devoted to drawing instructions, which completely occupy my thoughts. [...] Whenever I talk with somebody I try hard to see just what kind of shadow his or her nose casts, or how the deep shadow under a certain cheekbone starts out and then gradually blends into the highlights. This gradual blending is the hardest thing for me to capture. I am still drawing shadows much too distinctly. Instead of emphasizing what is important I find that I am trivializing. [...] My heads are still too wooden, too stiff.” (To her parents, 23.4.1896).
    “When I make my pilgrimage down the Potsdamerstraße on my way to drawing school, I study the thousand faces that pass me by and I try with a glance to discover the essential thing about each of them. [...] Then I try to see everything in two dimensions, to dissolve curved lines into angular lines.” (Journal [?], prior to 18.5.1896).
    In October, she begins an eighteen months training period at the same school: she attends the portrait class of Jacob Alberts and Martin Körte, the life drawing class of Ernst Friedrich Hausmann and takes landscape lessons with Ludwig Dettmann.
    She lives in the house of her uncle, Wulf von Bültzingslöwen, in Berlin-Schlachtensee and uses her free time to pursue her studies in the museums.
    “I am becoming very familiar with the German masters now, and with Holbein – but Rembrandt still remains the greatest.” (To her parents, 23.4.1896) She spends her summer vacations in Hindelang and visits the Pinakothek and the Schackgalerie in Munich on her way home.

    1897
    In February, Paula Becker enters the painting class of Jeanna Bauck, where she paints mainly portraits.
    “I love oil colours. They are so rich and powerful, so wonderful to work with after those shy pastels. [...] Yesterday I began working in oils under Hausmann, too. He has us work so differently from Jeanna Bauck. While she teaches us to work down from the brightest tones, taking white as the norm, he has us work up from the darkest tones, from shadows. The deeper the shadows, the brighter the saturated light must be. Rembrandt got such fantastic effects from light. All that came from the depth of his shadows. Living skin in daylight is so dazzling, so luminous, that it’s nearly impossible to paint it bright enough.” (To her parents, 14.5.1897).
    She often visits art exhibitions at the galleries of Schulte, Gurlitt, and Keller & Reiner. In the Berlin Kupferstichkabinett, she sees drawings by Michelangelo and Botticelli’s illustrations for Dante’s “Divine Comedy”. From the end of July to the end of August, she stays in Worpswede for the first time, together with her friend, the paintress Paula Ritter.
    “Today I painted my first plein air portrait at the clay pit, a little blond and blue-eyed girl. The way the little thing stood in the yellow sand was simply beautiful–a bright and shimmering thing to see. It made my heart leap. Painting people is indeed more beautiful than painting a landscape.” (To her parents, Worpswede, August 1897), and “This morning I was painting an old man from the poorhouse. It went very well. He sat there like a stick with the grey sky as background.” (To her parents, late August 1897).
    She sets up a studio for herself in an old stable building at her parents’ house on Schwachhauser Chaussee for the summer months. Her brothers and sisters sit for her as models.
    At the beginning of October she travels to Dresden for the “Internationale Kunstausstellung” with works by Carrière, Degas, Ensor, Monet, Pissarro, Sisley as well as Böcklin, Hodler, Kalckreuth, Klinger, Leibl, Liebermann, Segantini and the Worpswede artists.
    In early December, she travels to Vienna for the wedding of her cousin Lily Stammann to sculptor Carl Bernewitz. She visits the museums and the Liechtenstein gallery, mentioning Moretto, Titian, Rubens, Dürer, Cranach, Holbein, Leonardo and van Dyck.

    1898
    Continuation of her studies in Berlin. She sees an exhibition of artist lithographs at the Lichthof of the Kunstgewerbemuseum, where – amongst others – works by Puvis de Chavannes, Manet, Pissarro, Redon, Renoir, Sérusier, Toulouse-Lautrec, Valloton and Munch are shown. She sees works by Rippl-Rónai at Gurlitt’s gallery and at the Schulte gallery an exhibition of the “Elfer”, i.e. predecessors of the Berlin Secession as Liebermann, Alberts, von Hofmann and Klinger, – she mentions Leistikow in her letters. A Munch exhibition takes place at Keller & Reiner in April. On a trip to Leipzig, Paula Becker visits Klinger’s studio.
    At the end of May, she ends her studies in Berlin.
    In June/July, she travels to Norway with her uncle Wulf von Bültzingslöwen. In September, she moves to Worpswede. On her first evening in Worpswede she writes to her aunt Cora von Bültzingslöwen: “I am savouring my life with every breath I draw, and in the distance Paris gleams and shimmers. I truly believe that my most secret and ardent wish is going to come true.” (7.9.1898).
    Friendship with the sculptor Clara Westhoff, who will marry Rainer Maria Rilke in 1901. She is taught by Fritz Mackensen, who has already accepted Clara Westhoff and Marie Bock as pupils. She produces lifesize charcoal and red chalk drawings.
    “Every few days Mackensen comes over to give me his excellent critique.” (Journal, 18.10.1898). As Ottilie Reylaender recalls: “[...] the large nude study she had begun was on the easel. Mackensen corrected her, asking with a sharp look whether she really saw what she had done there in nature itself. Her answer was a strange one: a quick ‘yes’ and then a hesitant ‘no’, while apparently gazing into the distance.” (Ottilie Reylaender-Böhme, in: Hetsch 1932, p. 34).

    1899
    Besides the life-size drawings from models, her sketchbooks are filling up with landscape drawings, figure studies and composition drafts. She completes her first paintings as well as a number of etchings, which she prints using the hand press at Vogeler’s home, “Barkenhoff”. As a letter to her parents indicates, she regards Worpswede merely as a temporary place to stay in order to advance her studies:
    “I believe that I’ll grow away from here. Those with whom I can stand to speak about things close to my heart and feelings are becoming fewer and fewer.” (12.2.1899).
    As from June, she keeps a human skeleton in her studio for anatomical studies. She reads a lot, classic literature but above all J.P. Jacobsen and Henrik Ibsen. In August, she travels to Switzerland with her aunt Marie Hill. The return journey takes them to Munich, Nuremberg and Leipzig, where Clara Westhoff is working with Klinger, as well as to Dresden to the “Deutsche Kunstausstellung”, in which the Worpswede painters are represented with 22 paintings. In December, together with Marie Bock and Clara Westhoff, she exhibits some studies in the Kunsthalle Bremen, which receive an annihilating review from painter and critic Arthur Fitger. He declares their works as showing a “wretched lack of talent.” (Review from the Weser Zeitung (Bremen), 20. December 1899).

    1900
    The night of New Year’s Eve, Paula Becker travels to Paris for the first time. There she meets Clara Westhoff, who wishes to study at the school of sculpture set up by Rodin. Initially, the two of them live in the Grand Hôtel de la Haute Loire at 203, Boulevard Raspail. At the end of January, Paula Becker moves to 9, Rue Campagne Première. She studies at the private Académie Colarossi in Rue de la Grande Chaumière and attends the life drawing class. “The critiques seem to be objective and good. One does not work life-size here, but in the same format as in Berlin.” (To her parents, 11.1.1900). “I have registered for a morning course in life drawing. At the beginning of each week Girardot or Collins come and criticize the accuracy of our work. Toward the end of the week, Courtois comes and criticizes primarily the more picturesque aspects of what we have done, tonal values etc. [...] In the afternoon there is a course in croquis also from the nude in which for two hours we draw models in four different poses. This is very constructive for understanding movement.” (To her father, 18.1.1900). In addition, she and Clara Westhoff attend the free anatomy lessons at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. “In anatomy class, we are now learning about the construction of muscles in the human body. Two live models and a corpse are used for demonstration purposes. It’s extremely interesting, but unfortunately the sight of the corpse, and never fails to give me a headache.” (To her parents, 22.1.1900).
    Paula Becker wins the “concours” of her semester. “So, I have a medal and am now a big wig in the school. All four professors voted for me.” (To her parents, 3.3.1900).
    She is very impressed by paintings of Cézanne, which she discovers, still standing on the floor at the gallery of Ambroise Vollard, at 6, Rue Lafitte, after the exhibition in December.
    “One day she ordered me to join her on a walk along the opposite bank of the Seine, because she wanted to show me something special there. She led me to the art dealer Vollard and in his shop she began– since no one disturbed us – to turn around the paintings leaning against the wall and to select some with great certainty, which had a new, intense simplicity resembling Paula’s own approach. These were paintings by Cézanne, which we were both seeing for the first time. We had never even heard his name before. Paula had discovered him in her own particular way, and she regarded this discovery as an unexpected confirmation of her own artistic searching.” (Clara Rilke-Westhoff, in: Hetsch 1932, p. 43).
    During her frequent visits to the Louvre, she copies paintings and sculptures into a sketchbook, which she continues to use until 1906. In her letters she mentions Titian, Botticelli, Fiesole (Fra Angelico), Velázquez, Rembrandt, Holbein, della Robbia, and Donatello and among the more recent masters: Corot, Rousseau, Millet, Daubigny, Degas, Puvis de Chavannes, Courbet, and Monet. In an exhibition at Georges Petit’s gallery, she sees works by the Breton painters Simon as well as by Cottet, whom she visits in his studio. In March a comprehensive exhibition of Seurat takes place in the rooms of the “Revue Blanche”. She meets Emil Nolde and Emmi Walther, a paintress from Dachau, and visits the world exposition and Rodin’s sculpture pavilion at the Pont de l’Alma. In June, Otto Modersohn, Fritz and Hermine Overbeck and Marie Bock from Worpswede travel to Paris to visit Paula Becker. During their visit to Paris, Otto Modersohn’s wife Helene dies in Worpswede. Paula Becker returns to Worpswede at the end of June and rents a space with the farmer Brünjes in Ostendorf. She has the walls painted in bright colours: ultramarine at the bottom and turquoise at the top, separated by a band of redbrown. Until her final days, this coloured division of the wall often forms the background to her still-life works and figurative compositions. Rilke also refers to the rooms with Brünjes as the “lily studio” due to a fabric hanging on the wall with a bourbon lily. On Sundays the group of friends meets in the “Weißer Saal” at Vogeler’s “Barkenhoff”: Otto Modersohn and Paula Becker, Heinrich Vogeler and his future wife Martha Schröder, Clara Westhoff, Marie Bock, and Paula’s sisters Milly and Herma. The poets Carl Hauptmann and Rainer Maria Rilke are frequent guests. On 12th September Paula Becker and Otto Modersohn become engaged. In October, she rents a studio next to Otto Modersohn’s house, previously used by Ottilie Reylaender, who is leaving for Paris. Apart from a few figurative works, Paula Becker is almost exclusively painting landscapes now.

    The Foundation Publications Exhibitions Adress
    DE FR IT


    Self-Portrait, 1897.
    Gouache 24,5 x 26,5 cm



    Drawing after an Egyptian Woman Bust, London, 1892.
    Charcoal, 56,5 x 34 cm



    Standing Male Nude.
    Charcoal, 68,5 x 35,5 cm



    Self-Portrait, Berlin 1897.
    Pastel, 45,8 x 30,8 cm



    Girl with Fire Lilies, Worpswede 1897.
    Canvas 39,3 x 48 cm



    Breastfeeding Peasant Woman, 1898.
    Charcoal and red chalk, 80 x 46 cm
    (see letter PMB 16.12.1898)



    Woman’s Head in Profile, 1899.
    Charcoal and Pastel, 37 x 62,9 cm



    Standing Male Nude. Worpswede, c. 1899.
    Charcoal, 189,5 x 84,5 cm



    Standing Child Nude with the Skeleton Drawn In, 1899.
    Charcoal, 145 x 111 cm (see letter June 1899)



    Grey Landscape with Moor Canal, 1899.
    46 x 73,5 cm



    Bilderrätsel »Medaille«, Paris 1900.
    Watercolour and China ink, 13,9 x 8,7 cm



    Standing Female nude, Seen from the Back, 1900.
    72,3 x 31 cm



    Moon above landscape, c. 1900.
    39 x 53 cm
    Источник: https://www.paulamodersohnbeckerstiftung.de/E_biographie.html

    Paula Modersohn-Becker (1876-1907)

     

    Post-Impressionism and Expressionism in Paris

    In 1898 Becker went on a journey to Scandinavia. On her return, she settled at Worpswede. In 1900 she made her first trip to Paris, where she stayed for six months to train at the Academie Colarossi, sharing a studio with Clara Westhoff, who later married the famous writer Rainer Maria Rilke. She met other artists in Paris - including the German Expressionist Emil Nolde (1867-1956) - studied the Old Masters at the Louvre, and encountered paintings by Cezanne and Gauguin, which impressed her enormously. On returning to Worpswede she became engaged to Otto Modersohn, becoming Paula Modersohn-Becker on their marriage the following year.

    Modersohn-Becker was a determined woman and completely dedicated to her work as an artist, and often felt the need to live and work independently from her husband. Paris must have provided the excitement and stimulation that Worpswede could not give her, for she returned to the city in 1902 - this time to study at the Academie Julian - and again in 1903 to study at the Academie Colarossi. During her 1903 trip she was particularly impressed by Japanese art, as well as by the work of such modern French artists as Degas (1834-1917) and Rodin (1840-1917), whose studio she visited. Although she then returned to Worpswede for a while, she was soon drawn to Paris again. In 1906, for example, she spent a whole year there (even though her husband often begged her to come home), writing to her sister that this was the "most intensely happy period of her life". She returned to Worpswede in the Spring of 1907, where she gave birth to to her daughter, Mathilde, on November 2nd, but died of a heart attack a short while afterwards. She was 31 years old, and had been painting for less than 10 years. See also: Post-Impressionism in Germany (c.1880-1910).

    Simplified Style of Painting

    Modersohn-Becker's early work - mainly landscape painting of scenic views around Worpswede, and a range of genre painting of peasant scenes - was executed in the typically romantic style of the colony. But all this changed, as a result of her experiences in Paris, where she developed a powerful primitive style through which she was able to express her unique vision of the world. Inspired in particular by the works of Paul Gauguin (1848-1903), Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890), Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) and Picasso (1881-1973), she sought to create a radical, simplified style of painting. And like Cezanne and Pablo Picasso, she worked through her artistic problems by using simple, still-life subjects. Admiring what she called their "great biblical simplicity" as well as their resilience in enduring the hardships of peasant life, Modersohn-Becker frequently turned to the people and landscape of Worpswede in her search for subjects. She seems to have been especially facinated by the oldest, youngest and poorest residents of the village. Indeed, some of her most powerful images are portrait paintings of the old people from the local poorhouse, or of the skinny village children with whom she frequently played. In order to achieve a comparably rough simplicity in her work, she frequently used tempera (coloured pigment blended with egg yolk) rather than oil paint.

    Reputation and Legacy

    It was only after her death that the full extent of her work was discovered; in her short working life she had produced over 400 paintings and about 1000 graphic works. Although she was by nature a loner, the sensitivity with which she treated her subjects shows that she had a great interest in individuals and in human relationships. Comparatively unknown at the time of her death, which occurred before the main achievements of Der Baue Reiter (Munich, 1911-14) and Die Brucke (Dresden/Berlin 1905-13), and centres like the Sturm Gallery (Berlin 1912-32), she is now considered to be one of the outstanding German artists of her time. In particular, her use of colour, distortion of forms, intense personal vision, and primitivist approach to painting, makes her - like Van Gogh - an important precursor of 20th century Expressionism.

    Paintings by Paula Modersohn-Becker can be seen in many of the best art museums throughout the world.

    Источник: http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/famous-artists/paula-modersohn-becker.htm
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