members 1st federal credit union carlisle

The strategy, management's equivalent of a strike under federal labor law Two of the eight members of the union's executive subcommittee. Family Trust FCU is here to help you achieve all of your financial goals, whether you are looking to buy a house or planning for retirement or saving to. From such men we have reason to expect a revival of credit and commerce Let no objection be made to any one or more members of the Federal ticket.
members 1st federal credit union carlisle

Members 1st federal credit union carlisle -

Members 1st Federal Credit Union at West High Street, Carlisle PA

Members 1st Federal Credit Union Contact Information

Branch address, phone number, and hours of operation for Members 1st Federal Credit Union at West High Street, Carlisle PA.

Name
Members 1st Federal Credit Union
Address
814 West High Street
Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 17013
Phone
800-237-7288
Hours
Monday 09:00 AM - 05:00 PM, Tuesday 09:00 AM - 05:00 PM, Wednesday 09:00 AM - 05:00 PM, Thursday 09:00 AM - 05:00 PM, Friday 09:00 AM - 07:00 PM, Saturday 09:00 AM - 02:00 PM, Sunday closed

Map of Members 1st Federal Credit Union at West High Street, Carlisle PA

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Members 1st Federal Credit Union NearbyLocation
Members 1st Federal Credit Union at Carlisle BarracksCarlisle, PA
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Members 1st Federal Credit Union at Spring RoadCarlisle, PA
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Members 1st Federal Credit Union at South Broad StreetMechanicsburg, PA
Members 1st Federal Credit Union at Tristan DriveDillsburg, PA
Members 1st Federal Credit Union at Market Plaza WayMechanicsburg, PA
Members 1st Federal Credit Union at Carlisle PikeMechanicsburg, PA

Members 1st Federal Credit Union

Members 1st Federal Credit Union near Carlisle

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The citizens bank morehead routing number



the citizens bank morehead routing number Thank you for putting your trust in us. Bank Address. Download Mobile App Your Debit Card doesn't have to be boring. Citizens Bank Routing Number for ACH transfers. Government. FDIC insurance is backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government. Routing Number: The routing number consists of nine digits printed on the bottom-left corner of your check. The odd font used to print the number is known as Jun 02, 2019 · The bank routing number is a nine-digit number that is essentially an ID number for an individual bank. CITIZENS BANK routing numbers list. Citizens Bank Connecticut Routing Number. Banks use routing numbers that start with the first digits of The Routing Number is a 9-digit number located between the Transit Symbols at the bottom of a valid U. Wire Transfer Routing Number: 021313103. Citizens Bank online banking - You’ll be able to get your routing number by logging into online banking. ABA Jan 24, 2012 · Routing Number Map Details Address City State Zip Code Last Revision; 042107673: Details: 114 WEST MAIN STREET: MOREHEAD: KY: 40351: 2012-01-24 11:28:33 The FDIC Certificate Number for The Citizens Bank Branch office of The Citizens Bank in Want a FREE Gift? It's as easy as 1-2-3! With Tell-A-Friend Online referrals, you can tell more friends and get more gifts. description of Find by Name search goes here. The full address of bank headquarters is 114 West Main Street, Morehead, KY 40351. Routing Numbers; About us; Subscribe; Search Menu Citizens Bank, The: Morehead, KY: 559614 Citizens Bank & Trust Company Of Vivian, Louisiana Darryl has worked in the banking industry since 1983. He is Chairman of the Trustees of Owenton First Baptist Church. You can find your account number in the top of the right column of a bank statement. Revision Date (MMDDYY) 42715. Your routing number helps banks and businesses locate your account so they can transfer money in and out. Rhode Island. Aug 13, 2020 · Yes, certain banks can have multiple routing numbers for geographic reasons. Address. This database includes exclusive data, not offered by other sources, like Fake Routing Numbers, and the Fraction Code or Fractional Routing Number found on A routing number may also be called an ABA routing number, routing transit number or an RTN. Street Address. 913-727-1040. 34 corresponds to the routing number 074000078. GET DIRECTIONS. 02915. YOUR ACCOUNT NUMBER IS YOUR DIRECT EXPRESS DEBIT CARD NUMBER. Routing numbers are used by Federal Reserve Banks to process Fedwire funds transfers, and ACH(Automated Clearing House) direct deposits, bill payments, and other automated transfers. Routing numbers are also used to prove that banks are federal or state chartered and have a Federal Reserve account. You need to know your routing number to connect online accounts to your bank account, set up direct deposit with your employer, and in many other financial situations. 61120893. Your account number (usually 10-12 digits) is specific to your personal account. Branch address. The Citizens Bank, Farmington: The Citizens Bank, Greensboro: The Citizens Bank, Hickman: The Citizens Bank, Morehead: The Citizens Bank, Nashville: The Citizens Bank of Clovis: The Citizens Bank of Cochran: The Citizens Bank of Edina: The Citizens Bank of Edmond: The Citizens Bank of Fayette: The Citizens Bank of Forsyth County: The Citizens Routing Numbers; About us; Subscribe; Search Menu Citizens Bank, The: Morehead, KY: 559614 Citizens Bank & Trust Company Of Vivian, Louisiana This SWIFT code is for the FIRST CITIZENS BANK AND TRUST CO. [email protected] Your bank routing number is a nine-digit number and the first sequence of numbers which can be found at the bottom of your cheque. in the metropolitan Chicago in 2014. Check out our many options below. com. Accuity. Wire Instructions and Routing Number. Beneficiary's Name and Account Number. 1007 Church Street. Citizens Bank & Trust is a full-service financial institution, with a wide range of account and loan products tailored to fit your individual needs. Routing Number: 042107673: Bank: THE CITIZENS BANK: Address: P O BOX 1026: City: MOREHEAD: MOREHEAD, KY 40351. It is the federal reserve number or ABA number of the bank. eStatements. The table above states the routing number you will use for wire transfers made inside the United States. For ACH transfers to any Citizens Bank account, you would need an ACH routing number. Bank routing number chart below. The COMERICA/DIRECTEXPRESS ROUTING NUMBER IS 072000096. Previously, you used a User ID and Password to login to your account information. Routing Number NY: 021313103. 011000015 The routing number for First Citizens Community Bank is 031309589. Search For bank names on FindRoutingnumbers. Business Checking Accounts Obtaining the best rate also requires the following criteria to be met: 1) A new home equity line of credit application, 2) A line amount of $200,000 or more, 3) Line must be in first lien position, 4) Having a Citizens Bank consumer checking account, set up with automatic monthly payment deduction at the time of origination, 5) A loan-to-value (LTV) of 80% or less (85% or less in Michigan Jan 11, 2016 · The Routing Number is used for domestic transfer. Evanston, Illinois 60201. FIRST CITIZENS BANK AND TRUST CO. Select the state where you opened your account to see your routing number needed for different transaction types. We offer full-service banking with the goal to help members build a better financial future and we’ve been doing that since 1978! Routing Number: Customer Name: FIRST-CITIZENS BANK & TRUST CO: SOUND BANK: 5039 EXECUTIVE DRIVE: MOREHEAD CITY: NC: 28557-0000 (252)727-5558 Citizens Bank is a real community bank. Chartered By: STATE. When initiating a wire transfer online, the deadline is 5:00 PM (Eastern time). No THE CITIZENS BANK: KY: MOREHEAD: P O BOX 1026: 042107673: 299: The Routing Number is used for domestic transfer. Copy to Clipboard. To set up an incoming wire transfer, you’ll need Businesses today need a wide variety of financial services. In Rhode Island, the ACH routing number is the same, also being 011500120. Routing Number. Citizens Bank has only one routing number that you’ll need to use: 314089681, so if you’re a Citizens Bank customer or are transferring money Click on the routing number to find out the bank details, address, telephone number and maps. Here you can find your Citizens National Bank Routing Number. – 6:00 p. To make money transfer, the Routing Number is used together with the bank account number of the recipient. SWIFT code. Funds deposited with us stay local and help the community grow. Bank location where your account was opened. Now for all of you Citizens Bank account holder from New York, this is your turn, the following are your routing number. Opening Deposit Min. Address : 301 SOUTH EDWARDS ST, ENTERPRISE, AL 36330-0000. 1 Citizens Drive Rop440. Routing Numbers; About us; Subscribe; Search Menu Citizens Bank, The: Morehead, KY: 559614 Citizens Bank & Trust Company Of Vivian, Louisiana Oct 01, 2021 · First Citizens’s routing number for all wire transfers is 053100300. Main office. CITIZENS BANK NA. (800) 321-3373. This 9-digit code is used for multiple purposes such as fund transfers, direct deposits, bill payments, and digital checks. From sports to pets, nature to patriotic, you will find a debit card design that compliments your character. We have instant issue debit cards with many designs to fit you. TD’s institution number is 004. YourCitizens National Bank Routing Number is 111903151. check. Your routing number and account number can be found at the bottom of your checks. 406. Bank Code Name. Apr 29, 2021 · The ACH routing number for Citizens Bank is 241070417. 65403150. 3 comments: Nov 29, 2021 · A routing number is a 9-digit number used by U. THE CITIZENS BANK routing numbers list. For faster service, call us at 678. Also, note that the date of the last change to CRF information in our database is 09 July 2018, and we want to advise you that before making any electronic transaction, please Those include the following: • Customers are able to perform most banking transactions at our drive-thru service. tcbanytime. THE CITIZENS BANK routing numbers have a nine-digit numeric code printed on the bottom of checks which is used for electronic routing of funds (ACH transfer) from one bank account to another. You can use the third and fourth digits of your account number to determine your routing number. Go paperless today! P2P Payments. Now offering P2P Payments with our Mobile App. For example, banks like Wells Fargo and Citibank have different routing numbers for different states and for functionality. m. Visit with Kristletoe the Elf and Santa. Check or statement - Citizens Bank-issued check or bank statement. We are a bank that is in-state and in-touch with the lives of our local community. Select Bank Federal Credit Union (Afcu) Academic Federal Credit Union 1199 Seiu Federal Credit Union 121 Financial Credit Union 167th Tfr Federal Credit Union 1880 Bank 1st Community Credit Union 1st Advantage Bank 1st Apr 11, 2019 · Comerica Bank will then notify the Social Security Administration that you have a Direct Express account and your benefits will automatically be loaded to the account moving forward. When one uses these modes of electronic transactions, then the Citizens Bank will prompt you the Citizens Bank routing number. 031309589. Routing numbers are used to know where a transaction or deposit comes from. It is still found on checks and is also used in wire transfers, bill payments and direct Obtaining the best rate also requires the following criteria to be met: 1) A new home equity line of credit application, 2) A line amount of $200,000 or more, 3) Line must be in first lien position, 4) Having a Citizens Bank consumer checking account, set up with automatic monthly payment deduction at the time of origination, 5) A loan-to-value (LTV) of 80% or less (85% or less in Michigan Your bank routing number is a nine-digit code that's based on the U. City/State: Raleigh, North Carolina. Information needed for incoming wires and routing number. CITIZENS BANK Routing Number : 011500120. A Lane Guide Company Find By Name. 11401533. and each of its respective affiliates. The following routing numbers correspond to electronic payments such as direct deposits and ACH payments. Account Number. FCBTUS33XXX. 100 EAST TRYON ROAD, INTERNATIONAL BANKING SERVICES. Riverside. A bank's Routing Transit Number (RTN) is a 9-digit code used to identify your bank on checks, direct deposit, bill pay, and in other transactions. Bank Routing Number. Here are some of the ways to find your number online: On this page - We've listed the Citizens Bank routing number for checking accounts and wire transfers. Sep 20, 2021 · The routing number and your personal account number can both be found on the bottom of the checks issued by your bank. Further Credit To: Customer Name. 123 is three digits code identifying the institution. ABA Routing Number: 053100300. However, the bank has different routing numbers depending on where you opened your account and what action you’re trying to complete. Morehead Community FCU details below updated September 2021 from quarterly data ending June 30, 2021. Previous Routing Number. There are 9 active routing numbers for THE CITIZENS BANK. We currently do not have a routing number for The Citizens Bank in our database. Servicing FRB Number. Incoming wire transfers require the following information: Bank name: First Citizens Bank. Aug 31, 2020 · If the first two numbers of a routing number are 00, that means the routing number is for a check or draft from the U. The ACH number and your bank account number are used by banks and transfer apps like Zelle or Cash App to identify the exact account payments should be taken from and sent to. Current Routing Number. The institution number represents the bank that your account is with, and it’s always 3 digits long. Lost/Stolen Cards. Saturday, December 11. A routing number is a nine-digit numeric code printed on the bottom of checks that is used to facilitate the electronic routing of funds (ACH transfer) from one bank account to another. Your routing number is the nine-digit code on the bottom left of your checks, per the visual below. From now on, you will also use a personalized image. This includes deposits, withdrawals, loan payments, account balance and information inquiries. The bank routing for Citizens Bank CT is 211170114. 211474661. Since the FDIC was established in 1933, no depositor has lost one penny of FDIC-insured accounts. 5151 S 4th St. CITIZENS BANK & TRUST. Electronic Transfer (ACH): 021313103. 062206431. . For international inward money transfer, a SWIFT code must be used together with a Routing Number and Account Number. Bank Name: Citizens Bank. When you combine them, the branch number and institution number make up your account’s routing number. Sometimes, banks have multiple routing numbers for different branches or uses. Nov 06, 2018 · What is the Routing Number for Citizens Bank CT. A. Whether you run a small 1-2 person start up shop, or enlist the help of multiple employees, Citizens Bank has a business account to fit your particular needs. Routing Numbers; About us; Subscribe; Search Menu Citizens Bank, The: Morehead, KY: 559614 Citizens Bank & Trust Company Of Vivian, Louisiana The Citizens Bank: Bank Routing Number: 42107673: Bank City: Morehead: Bank State: KY: Open PDF File - Learn how to open Portable Document Format File, Jun 01, 2020 · A routing number is a nine-digit number that allows a check or wired payment to be sent to the correct bank or credit union. For additional details regarding the application process, contact: Routing Number Registrar. The routing number for Citizens Bank in Mississippi is used on Citizens Bank checks and for direct deposits and wire transfers. Routing numbers are essential to the correct ABA Bank Routing Number Lookup. MultiKey is made up of four parts: User A relationship you can bank on: Thank you for your support. Citizens Bank & Trust's routing number is 062206431. Routing Numbers; About us; Subscribe; Search Menu Citizens Bank, The: Morehead, KY: 559614 Citizens Bank & Trust Company Of Vivian, Louisiana CITIZENS BANK, RIVERSIDE Electronic Routing Number - 036076150 A routing number 036076150 is used to identify a monetary foundation in the CITIZENS BANK, RIVERSIDE, US. 211170114. Office Code (O=Main B=Branch) O. (847) 933-8040 fax. " Sep 23, 2021 · Citizens National Bank has 27 locations in Mississippi to serve you! 512 22nd Avenue, Meridian, MS 39301. Bank City. Routing numbers are unique identifiers which show the bank location where you opened your account. Details of Routing Number # 062105710. Wire transfers made outside of the United States to a USA Citizens Bank account have a routing number found in the table listed at the beginning of this article. Opinion for Citizens Bank of Morehead v. City. The first number on the bottom left-hand side of your checks is your routing number, which will direct deposits to your bank. The bank sold its 94 branches to the U. Posted by Admin at 6:51 PM. Was your card lost and/or stolen? Find out how to replace it. So, bundle up and come to CFB. Call (423) 272-2200 for wire instructions for domestic wire transfer to and from The Citizens Bank Of East Tennessee, international wire transfer, wire transfer fees and cut off time for wires. com for more information and online banking service if available. Outdoor event, weather permitting. State. Bank Name. 2d 730, 287 Ky. Routing number : 061212057, Institution Name : THE CITIZENS BANK, Delivery Address : 301 SOUTH DAVIS STREET,NASHVILLE, GA - 31639, Telephone : 229-686-7444 Citizens Bank of Mississippi - Routing Number. You will need following information to transfer the fund from your CITIZENS BANK account to any other financial institution within US. The SWIFT code for Citizens Bank is CTZIUS33. This SWIFT code is for the FIRST CITIZENS BANK AND TRUST CO. You can also find it in the U. 65304385. Cheque, bank statement or deposit slip – bank-issued cheque or bank statement. Routing numbers are often referred to as check routing numbers, ABA numbers or routing numbers (RTN). To find routing number of a bank, kindly select the bank, state, city and branch location. 4000 during normal business hours M-F 8:30 a. S. Find Us. Routing numbers may vary by the location where your account was opened and the type of transaction made. Balance to Earn APY Effective Date Interest Rate APY; Regular Savings: $25: $0 - $14,999 $15,000 - $49,999 eStatements. The Citizens Bank's routing number (the leftmost number on the bottom of a check) is 42107673. Online banking – You’ll be able to get your account, institution, and transit number by logging into online banking. He currently serves as President of Citizens Union Bank. We offer full-service banking with the goal to help members build a better financial future and we’ve been doing that since 1978! Citizens is a brand name of Citizens Bank, N. • If you are making a deposit, you may do so at the drive-thru or you can bypass the drive-thru and place your deposit in the Night Oct 23, 2021 · Citizens Bank New York. 70 Carlisle Road. Swift code (8 characters) FCBTUS33. For example, the routing number for the TD branch located at 15 York St. He previously served as Chairman and CEO of First Farmers Bank located in Owenton, KY. Citizens is a brand name of Citizens Bank, N. Routing number 042107673 is assigned to THE CITIZENS BANK located in MOREHEAD, KY. The second part of the numerator represents the American Bankers Association institution identifier, and the denominator is the Federal Reserve routing symbol. Local decision-making, lending flexibility and expertise – the right combination to building personal and business wealth for generations. The SWIFT code for wire transfers made outside of the United States is CTZIUS33. Hunt, 154 S. W. 10am – 12pm. The standard insurance amount is $250,000 per depositor, per insured bank, for each account ownership category. Bank : THE CITIZENS BANK . domestic wire transfer from CITIZENS BANK. Apr 09, 2020 · The first part of the hyphenated numerator in a bank fractional routing number stands for the city/state, notes BankersOnline. Short for Automatic Clearing House, ACH numbers are unique to each bank in the US. Dec 27, 2018 · Citizens National Bank is a bank headquartered in Texas. First Citizens Bank Routing Number. Dec 22, 2020 · The purpose of routing numbers is to keep track of where checks are coming from and where they are going to so that the bank knows how much money it is losing and how much it should be gaining in order to make sure that interest is paid on its loans and other funds. While sending a domestic ACH transfer in a Citizens Bank account, you will need to use the ACH routing number, which differs from state to state. Darryl is a graduate of Morehead State University with a BA in Finance. Telephone Number (800) 883-4224. See us to find the design that fits you. You can find your routing number by looking at your Citizens Bank checks. CITIZENS BANK routing numbers have a nine-digit numeric code printed on the bottom of checks which is used for electronic routing of funds (ACH transfer) from one bank account to another. 211070175. In the example, you would use 34 to determine your routing number using the chart below. 71000301. financial institutions to identify the specific financial institution tied to a bank transaction. Feb 10, 2014 · The Suntrust Bank is the bank that has the routing number 055002707. Zip. Our offices and staff all reside in rural Kentucky counties. Tell them your Christmas wishes and take a photo with Santa. Check Routing Numbers for all the banks and financial institutions in US. The Citizens Bank wire transfer routing number is 011500120 for any transfers inside of the United States. for the routing number, the first digit is the leading zero. It's the first set of numbers printed on the bottom of your checks, on the left side. You can visit the official website of the bank at https://www. Darryl has worked in the banking industry since 1983. "Amazing local bank with great rates and extremely supportive of the community. If your bank transit number is only four digits long, add a 0 in front of the number. Citizens National Bank has 27 locations in Mississippi to serve you! 512 22nd Avenue, Meridian, MS 39301. Office Code. You can get the citizens bank routing numbers are here. Note on Incoming Wire Transfers: Incoming wire transfers have a different routing number than the one displayed on your account. ET. Citizens is committed to ensuring that all interested candidates can successfully participate in our recruitment process. Most banks provide at least one free checkbook for new customers. The format of Routing Number, MICR Number is as follows:-Routing Number - 012345678 MICR Number - 45678-123. From first cars to meeting business goals, Citizens Trust Bank has proudly served businesses and community citizens since 1921. This routing number is used for ACH and wire money transfer from Citizens Bank Trust Plaquemine to other banks in United States of America. I FOUND THE ROUTING NUMBER ONLINE UNDER Oct 01, 2019 · Savings Accounts* Type of Deposit Min. ZIP. View Morehead Community FCU routing number, assets, charter number, members, loans and more. Bancorp, the U. This service will provide additional privacy and security of your personal information. 45678 is five digits code identifying the branch. Connecticut. Incoming wire: Citizens Federal Savings Bank. Aug 21, 2019 · The routing number 11401533 was issued by CITIZENS BANK NA in RIVERSIDE, Rhode Island (RI). Routing Numbers; About us; Subscribe; Search Menu Citizens Bank, The: Morehead, KY: 559614 Citizens Bank & Trust Company Of Vivian, Louisiana The Citizens Bank: Bank Routing Number: 42107673: Bank City: Morehead: Bank State: KY: Open PDF File - Learn how to open Portable Document Format File, The bank has multiple branches and therefore it would be best to know and confirm the First Citizens National Bank routing number before making any transaction. Nov 30, 2021 · Santa and His Sleigh are planning an extra stop this year! Citizens First Bank at 1442 Lincoln Way. Routing Number: 065300211. Member FDIC *Citizens Auto Advantage™ is currently being piloted in CT, MA and RI with additional markets to be added soon. followed by a couple real life examples. Sign Up Now Mar 11, 2005 · Citizens Bank A routing number is a nine digit code, used in the United States to identify the financial institution. The MultiKey login service is an easy way to help prevent identity theft and fraud. Leavenworth, KS 66048. in Toronto is 10152-004. For ordering checks, domestic wire transfers and direct deposit/ACH transactions, your C&F Bank routing number is 051404901. Example: Branch 1011 is 01011. No ID Name Address Established Service Type Map; 0: 6735: The Citizens Bank: 114 West Main Street, Morehead, KY 40351: September 28, 1928: Full Service Brick and Mortar A bank's Routing Transit Number (RTN) is a 9-digit code used to identify your bank on checks, direct deposit, bill pay, and in other transactions. FDIC Certificate: #324. Download Mobile App Farm Operating Lines of Credit: Nic Weers – 1-866-413-8155 Custom Built Mortgage Loans: Janet Sanborn (NMLS #452957) - 1-866-413-8155 Mary Achenbach (NMLS #452956) - 1-866-413-8155 The appropriate Citizens Trust Bank associate will contact you as soon as possible. Telephone : 334-347-3411. At Morehead Community Federal Credit Union our members are owners, joined by the belief that we are investing in each other. Routing Number Results are Updated Daily from the eRoutingNumber™ Database. 646 — Brought to you by Free Law Project, a non-profit dedicated to creating high quality open legal information. **The following states participate in the Electronic Lien and Title (ELT) program and will release your title: AZ, CA, CO, FL, GA, ID, KS, LA, MA, NC, NE, OH, PA, SC, SD May 15, 2014 · CITIZENS BANK Address : CITIZENS BANK, 1 CITIZENS DRIVE, RIVERSIDE, RHODE ISLAND - 02915. The FDIC manages the Deposit Insurance Fund to At Morehead Community Federal Credit Union our members are owners, joined by the belief that we are investing in each other. The first number is the routing number and the second is your unique account number. First Citizens Financial Corporation. There are 36 active routing numbers for CITIZENS BANK. It aims to work for the community and provides various banking facilities to its customers. If you are an individual with a disability or require a reasonable accommodation, please see our Job Seeker Help policy. The Citizens Bank routing number for Rhode Island is 011500120. The Citizens Bank Of East Tennessee Routing Number 064202967. Branch name. Jan 26, 2010 · Citizens bank, kathleen schmitt? - nh citizens bank routing number President, Manchester, NH Citizens Bank . Additionally, we offer the most experienced group of wealth management, trust and private banking professionals in the market to assist you. the citizens bank morehead routing number

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James Buchanan

15th president of the United States (1857–1861)

This article is about the 15th president of the United States. For other people with the same name, see James Buchanan (disambiguation).

James Buchanan

Photograph of an elderly James Buchanan

Photograph by Mathew Brady, 1850–1868

In office
March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861
Vice PresidentJohn C. Breckinridge
Preceded byFranklin Pierce
Succeeded byAbraham Lincoln
In office
August 23, 1853 – March 15, 1856
PresidentFranklin Pierce
Preceded byJoseph Reed Ingersoll
Succeeded byGeorge M. Dallas
In office
March 10, 1845 – March 7, 1849
President
Preceded byJohn C. Calhoun
Succeeded byJohn M. Clayton
In office
December 6, 1834 – March 5, 1845
Preceded byWilliam Wilkins
Succeeded bySimon Cameron
In office
June 11, 1832 – August 5, 1833
PresidentAndrew Jackson
Preceded byJohn Randolph
Succeeded byWilliam Wilkins
In office
March 5, 1829 – March 3, 1831
Preceded byPhilip P. Barbour
Succeeded byWarren R. Davis
In office
March 4, 1821 – March 3, 1831
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Constituency3rd district (1821–1823)
4th district (1823–1831)
In office
1814–1816
Preceded byEmanuel Reigart, Joel Lightner, Jacob Grosh, John Graff, Henry Hambright, Robert Maxwell
Succeeded byJoel Lightner, Hugh Martin, John Forrey, Henry Hambright, Jasper Slaymaker, Jacob Grosh[1]
Born(1791-04-23)April 23, 1791
Cove Gap, Pennsylvania, U.S.
DiedJune 1, 1868(1868-06-01) (aged 77)
Lancaster, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Cause of deathRespiratory failure
Resting placeWoodward Hill Cemetery
Political party
RelationsHarriet Lane (niece)
EducationDickinson College (BA)
Occupation
SignatureCursive signature in ink
Branch/servicePennsylvania Militia
Years of service1814[2]
RankPrivate
UnitHenry Shippen's Company, 1st Brigade, 4th Division
Battles/wars

James Buchanan Jr. (buh-CAN-nən; April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 15th president of the United States from 1857 to 1861. He previously served as secretary of state from 1845 to 1849 and represented Pennsylvania in both houses of the U.S. Congress. He was advocate for states' rights, in particular pertaining to the institution of slavery, and minimized the role of the federal government in the nation's final years before the Civil War.

Buchanan was a prominent lawyer in Pennsylvania and won his first election to the state's House of Representatives as a Federalist. He was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1820 and retained that post for 11 years, aligning with Andrew Jackson's Democratic Party. Buchanan served as Jackson's minister to Russia (1832). He won election in 1834 as a U.S. senator from Pennsylvania and also held that position for 11 years. Buchanan was appointed to serve as President James K. Polk's secretary of state in 1845, and eight years later was named as President Franklin Pierce's minister to the United Kingdom. In 1846, Buchanan was elected as a member to the American Philosophical Society.[3]

Beginning in 1844, Buchanan became a regular contender for the Democratic party's presidential nomination. He was finally nominated in 1856, defeating incumbent Franklin Pierce and Senator Stephen A. Douglas at the Democratic National Convention; he benefited from the fact that he had been out of the country (as ambassador in London) and thus had not been involved in slavery issues. Buchanan and running mate John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky carried every slave state except Maryland, defeating anti-slavery Republican John C. Frémont and Know-Nothing former president Millard Fillmore to win the 1856 presidential election.

As President, Buchanan intervened in the Supreme Court to gather majority support of the pro-slavery and anti-black decision in the Dred Scott case. He did what Southern leaders wanted in attempting to engineer Kansas coming into the Union as a slave state under the Lecompton Constitution. He thereby angered not only the Republicans but also many Northern Democrats. Buchanan honored his pledge to serve only one term, and supported Breckinridge's unsuccessful candidacy in the 1860 presidential election. He failed to reconcile the fractured Democratic party due to a simmering grudge against Stephen Douglas, leading to a four-way electoral split and the election of Republican and former Congressman Abraham Lincoln.

Just weeks after Lincoln was elected as Buchanan's successor, Southern states began seceding from the Union, precipitating the American Civil War. Buchanan's bumbling leadership during his lame duck period was widely criticized. He simultaneously angered the North by not stopping secession, and the South by not acceding to their secession. He supported the ill-fated Corwin Amendment in an attempt to reconcile the country, but it was too little too late. He made an unsuccessful attempt to reinforce the defenders of Fort Sumter, but otherwise refrained from taking any action to prepare the military. His failure to forestall the Civil War has been described alternatively as incompetent inaction, or passive acceptance of the South. Many contemporaries blamed him for the war, and he was much reviled after his presidency. He spent his last years defending his reputation. In his personal life, Buchanan never married, and, as of 2021, he is the only U.S. president to remain a lifelong bachelor. Biographers have variously suggested that he was celibate, homosexual, or asexual. Buchanan died of respiratory failure in 1868, and was buried in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, where he had lived for nearly 60 years. Modern historians and critics condemn him for not addressing the issue of slavery or forestalling the secession of the Southern states over it. Historians and scholars consistently rank Buchanan as one of the worst presidents in American history.

Early life[edit]

James Buchanan Jr. was born April 23, 1791, in a log cabin in Cove Gap, Pennsylvania, to James Buchanan Sr. (1761–1821) and Elizabeth Speer (1767–1833).[4] His parents were both of Ulster Scot descent; his father emigrated from Ramelton, Ireland in 1783. Shortly after Buchanan's birth the family moved to a farm near Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, and in 1794 the family moved into the town. His father became the wealthiest resident there, as a merchant, farmer, and real estate investor.

Buchanan attended the Old Stone Academy and then Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. He was nearly expelled for bad behavior, but pleaded for a second chance and ultimately graduated with honors on September 19, 1809. Later that year he moved to the state capital at Lancaster. James Hopkins, a leading lawyer there, accepted Buchanan as an apprentice, and in 1812 he was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar. Many other lawyers moved to Harrisburg when it became the state capital in 1812, but Buchanan made Lancaster his lifelong home. His income rapidly rose after he established his practice, and by 1821 he was earning over $11,000 per year (equivalent to $210,000 in 2020). He handled various types of cases, including a much-publicized impeachment trial, where he successfully defended Pennsylvania Judge Walter Franklin.

Buchanan began his political career as a member of the Federalist Party, and was elected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives (1814–1816). The legislature met for only three months a year, but Buchanan's service helped him acquire more clients. Politically, he supported federally-funded internal improvements, a high tariff, and a national bank. He became a strong critic of Democratic-Republican President James Madison during the War of 1812.

He was a Freemason, and served as the Master of Masonic Lodge No. 43 in Lancaster, and as a District Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.

Military service[edit]

When the British invaded neighboring Maryland in 1814, he served in the defense of Baltimore as a private in Henry Shippen's Company, 1st Brigade, 4th Division, Pennsylvania Militia, a unit of yagers.[13] Buchanan is the only president with military experience who was not an officer.[14] He is also the last president who served in the War of 1812.[citation needed]

Congressional career[edit]

Main article: Electoral history of James Buchanan

U.S. House service[edit]

In 1820 Buchanan ran for the U.S. House of Representatives and won, though his Federalist Party was waning. During his tenure in Congress, he became a supporter of Andrew Jackson and an avid defender of states' rights. After the 1824 presidential election, he helped organize Jackson's followers into the Democratic Party, and he became a prominent Pennsylvania Democrat. In Washington, he was personally close with many southern Congressmen, and viewed some New England Congressmen as dangerous radicals. He was appointed to the Committee of Agriculture in his first year, and he eventually became Chairman of the U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary. He declined re-nomination to a sixth term, and briefly returned to private life.

Minister to Russia[edit]

After Jackson was re-elected in 1832, he offered Buchanan the position of United States Ambassador to Russia. Buchanan was reluctant to leave the country but ultimately agreed. He served as ambassador for 18 months, during which time he learned French, the trade language of diplomacy in the nineteenth century. He helped negotiate commercial and maritime treaties with the Russian Empire.

U.S. Senate service[edit]

Buchanan returned home and was elected by the Pennsylvania state legislature to succeed William Wilkins in the U.S. Senate. Wilkins in turn replaced Buchanan as the ambassador to Russia. The Jacksonian Buchanan, who was re-elected in 1836 and 1842, opposed the re-chartering of the Second Bank of the United States and sought to expunge a congressional censure of Jackson stemming from the Bank War.

Buchanan also opposed a gag rule sponsored by John C. Calhoun that would have suppressed anti-slavery petitions. He joined the majority in blocking the rule, with most senators of the belief that it would have the reverse effect of strengthening the abolitionists.[18] He said, "We have just as little right to interfere with slavery in the South, as we have to touch the right of petition." Buchanan thought that the issue of slavery was the domain of the states, and he faulted abolitionists for exciting passions over the issue.

His support of states' rights was matched by his support for Manifest Destiny, and he opposed the Webster–Ashburton Treaty for its "surrender" of lands to the United Kingdom. Buchanan also argued for the annexation of both Texas and the Oregon Country. In the lead-up to the 1844 Democratic National Convention, Buchanan positioned himself as a potential alternative to former President Martin Van Buren, but the nomination went to James K. Polk, who won the election.

Diplomatic career[edit]

Secretary of State[edit]

Buchanan (second from the left) in Polk's cabinet, 1849

Buchanan was offered the position of Secretary of State in the Polk administration, as well as the alternative of serving on the Supreme Court. He accepted the State Department post and served for the duration of Polk's single term in office. He and Polk nearly doubled the territory of the United States through the Oregon Treaty and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which included territory that is now Texas, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado. In negotiations with Britain over Oregon, Buchanan at first favored a compromise, but later advocated for annexation of the entire territory. Eventually, he agreed to a division at the 49th parallel. After the outbreak of the Mexican–American War, he advised Polk against taking territory south of the Rio Grande River and New Mexico. However, as the war came to an end, Buchanan argued for the annexation of further territory, and Polk began to suspect that Buchanan was primarily angling to become president. Buchanan did quietly seek the nomination at the 1848 Democratic National Convention, as Polk had promised to serve only one term, but Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan was nominated.

Ambassador to the United Kingdom[edit]

Bust of James Buchanan by Henry Dexterat the National Portrait Gallery

With the 1848 election of Whig Zachary Taylor, Buchanan returned to private life. He bought the house of Wheatland on the outskirts of Lancaster and entertained various visitors, while monitoring political events. In 1852, he was named president of the Board of Trustees of Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, and he served in this capacity until 1866. He quietly campaigned for the 1852 Democratic presidential nomination, writing a public letter that deplored the Wilmot Proviso, which proposed to ban slavery in new territories. He became known as a "doughface" due to his sympathy towards the South. At the 1852 Democratic National Convention, he won the support of many southern delegates but failed to win the two-thirds support needed for the presidential nomination, which went to Franklin Pierce. Buchanan declined to serve as the vice presidential nominee, and the convention instead nominated his close friend, William King. Pierce won the 1852 election, and Buchanan accepted the position of United States Minister to the United Kingdom.

Buchanan sailed for England in the summer of 1853, and he remained abroad for the next three years. In 1850, the United States and Great Britain had signed the Clayton–Bulwer Treaty, which committed both countries to joint control of any future canal that would connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans through Central America. Buchanan met repeatedly with Lord Clarendon, the British foreign minister, in hopes of pressuring the British to withdraw from Central America. He also focussed on the potential annexation of Cuba, which had long interested him. At Pierce's prompting, Buchanan met in Ostend, Belgium with U.S. Ambassador to Spain Pierre Soulé and U.S. Ambassador to France John Mason. A memorandum draft resulted, called the Ostend Manifesto, which proposed the purchase of Cuba from Spain, then in the midst of revolution and near bankruptcy. The document declared the island "as necessary to the North American republic as any of its present ... family of states". Against Buchanan's recommendation, the final draft of the manifesto suggested that "wresting it from Spain", if Spain refused to sell, would be justified "by every law, human and Divine". The manifesto, generally considered a blunder, was never acted upon, and weakened the Pierce administration and reduced support for Manifest Destiny.

[edit]

Main article: 1856 United States presidential election

1856 Map of electoral votes

Buchanan's service abroad allowed him to conveniently avoid the debate over the Kansas–Nebraska Act then roiling the country in the slavery dispute. While he did not overtly seek the presidency, he assented to the movement on his behalf. The 1856 Democratic National Convention met in June 1856, producing a platform that reflected his views, including support for the Fugitive Slave Law, which required the return of escaped slaves. The platform also called for an end to anti-slavery agitation, and U.S. "ascendancy in the Gulf of Mexico". President Pierce hoped for re-nomination, while Senator Stephen A. Douglas also loomed as a strong candidate. Buchanan led on the first ballot, boosted by the support of powerful Senators John Slidell, Jesse Bright, and Thomas F. Bayard, who presented Buchanan as an experienced leader appealing to the North and South. He won the nomination after seventeen ballots. He was joined on the ticket by John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky, in order to placate supporters of Pierce and Douglas, with whom Breckinridge had been allied.

Buchanan faced two candidates in the general election: former Whig President Millard Fillmore ran as the American Party (or "Know-Nothing") candidate, while John C. Frémont ran as the Republican nominee. Buchanan did not actively campaign, but he wrote letters and pledged to uphold the Democratic platform. In the election, he carried every slave state except for Maryland, as well as five slavery-free states, including his home state of Pennsylvania. He won 45 percent of the popular vote and decisively won the electoral vote, taking 174 of 296 votes. His election made him the first president from Pennsylvania. In a combative victory speech, Buchanan denounced Republicans, calling them a "dangerous" and "geographical" party that had unfairly attacked the South. He also declared, "the object of my administration will be to destroy sectional party, North or South, and to restore harmony to the Union under a national and conservative government." He set about this initially by feigning a sectional balance in his cabinet appointments.

[edit]

Main article: Presidency of James Buchanan

Inauguration[edit]

Main article: Inauguration of James Buchanan

Buchanan was inaugurated on March 4, 1857, taking the oath of office from Chief JusticeRoger B. Taney. In his inaugural address, Buchanan committed himself to serving only one term, as his predecessor had done. He expressed an abhorrence for the growing divisions over slavery and its status in the territories, while saying that Congress should play no role in determining the status of slavery in the states or territories. He also declared his support for popular sovereignty. Buchanan recommended that a federal slave code be enacted to protect the rights of slave-owners in federal territories. He alluded to a then-pending Supreme Court case, Dred Scott v. Sandford, which he said would permanently settle the issue of slavery. Dred Scott was a slave who was temporarily taken from a slave state to a free territory by his owner, John Sanford (the court misspelled his name). After Scott returned to the slave state, he filed a petition for his freedom based on his time in the free territory. The Dred Scott decision, rendered after Buchanan's speech, denied Scott's petition in favor of his owner.

Personnel[edit]

Cabinet and administration[edit]

As his inauguration approached, Buchanan sought to establish an obedient, harmonious cabinet, to avoid the in-fighting that had plagued Andrew Jackson's administration. He chose four Southerners and three Northerners, the latter of whom were all considered to be doughfaces (Southern sympathizers). His objective was to dominate the cabinet, and he chose men who would agree with his views. Concentrating on foreign policy, he appointed the aging Lewis Cass as Secretary of State. Buchanan's appointment of Southerners and their allies alienated many in the North, and his failure to appoint any followers of Stephen A. Douglas divided the party. Outside of the cabinet, he left in place many of Pierce's appointments, but removed a disproportionate number of Northerners who had ties to Democrat opponents Pierce or Douglas. In that vein, he soon alienated their ally, and his vice president, Breckinridge; the latter therefore played little role in the administration.

Judicial appointments[edit]

Main article: List of federal judges appointed by James Buchanan

Buchanan appointed one Justice, Nathan Clifford, to the Supreme Court of the United States.[41] He appointed seven other federal judges to United States district courts. He also appointed two judges to the United States Court of Claims.[42]

Intervention in the Dred Scott case[edit]

Two days after Buchanan's inauguration, Chief Justice Taney delivered the Dred Scott decision, denying the enslaved petitioner's request for freedom. The ruling broadly asserted that Congress had no constitutional power to exclude slavery in the territories. Prior to his inauguration, Buchanan had written to Justice John Catron in January 1857, inquired about the outcome of the case, and suggested that a broader decision, beyond the specifics of the case, would be more prudent. Buchanan hoped that a broad decision protecting slavery in the territories could lay the issue to rest, allowing him to focus on other issues.

Catron, who was from Tennessee, replied on February 10, saying that the Supreme Court's Southern majority would decide against Scott, but would likely have to publish the decision on narrow grounds unless Buchanan could convince his fellow Pennsylvanian, Justice Robert Cooper Grier, to join the majority of the court. Buchanan then wrote to Grier and prevailed upon him, providing the majority leverage to issue a broad-ranging decision, sufficient to render the Missouri Compromise of 1820 unconstitutional. Buchanan's letters were not then public; he was, however, seen at his inauguration in whispered conversation with the Chief Justice. When the decision was issued, Republicans began spreading word that Taney had revealed to Buchanan the forthcoming result. Rather than destroying the Republican platform as Buchanan had hoped, the decision outraged Northerners who denounced it.

Panic of 1857[edit]

The Panic of 1857 began in the summer of that year, ushered in by the collapse of 1,400 state banks and 5,000 businesses. While the South escaped largely unscathed, numerous northern cities experienced drastic increases in unemployment. Buchanan agreed with the southerners who attributed the economic collapse to overspeculation.

Reflecting his Jacksonian background, Buchanan's response was "reform not relief". While the government was "without the power to extend relief," it would continue to pay its debts in specie, and while it would not curtail public works, none would be added. In hopes of reducing paper money supplies and inflation, he urged the states to restrict the banks to a credit level of $3 to $1 of specie and discouraged the use of federal or state bonds as security for bank note issues. The economy recovered in several years, though many Americans suffered as a result of the panic. Buchanan had hoped to reduce the deficit, but by the time he left office the federal deficit stood at $17 million.

Utah War[edit]

Main articles: Utah War and Runaway Officials of 1851

The Utah territory, settled in preceding decades by the Latter-day Saints and their leader Brigham Young, had grown increasingly hostile to federal intervention. Young harassed federal officers and discouraged outsiders from settling in the Salt Lake City area. In September 1857, the Utah Territorial Militia, associated with the Latter-day Saints, perpetrated the Mountain Meadows massacre against Arkansans headed for California. Buchanan was offended by the militarism and polygamous behavior of Young.

Believing the Latter-day Saints to be in open rebellion, Buchanan in July 1857 sent Alfred Cumming, accompanied by the Army, to replace Young as governor. While the Latter-day Saints had frequently defied federal authority, some historians consider Buchanan's action was an inappropriate response to uncorroborated reports. Complicating matters, Young's notice of his replacement was not delivered because the Pierce administration had annulled the Utah mail contract. Young reacted to the military action by mustering a two-week expedition, destroying wagon trains, oxen, and other Army property. Buchanan then dispatched Thomas L. Kane as a private agent to negotiate peace. The mission succeeded, the new governor took office, and the Utah War ended. The President granted amnesty to inhabitants affirming loyalty to the government, and placed the federal troops at a peaceable distance for the balance of his administration.

Bleeding Kansas[edit]

Main article: Bleeding Kansas

The balance of free and slave states and territories in 1858, after the admission of Minnesota

The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 created the Kansas Territory and allowed the settlers there to decide whether to allow slavery. This resulted in violence between "Free-Soil" (antislavery) and pro-slavery settlers, which developed into the "Bleeding Kansas" period. The antislavery settlers, with the help of Northern abolitionists, organized a government in Topeka. The more numerous proslavery settlers, many from the neighboring slave state Missouri, established a government in Lecompton, giving the Territory two different governments for a time, with two distinct constitutions, each claiming legitimacy.

The admission of Kansas as a state required a constitution be submitted to Congress with the approval of a majority of its residents. Under President Pierce, a series of violent confrontations escalated over who had the right to vote in Kansas. The situation drew national attention, and some in Georgia and Mississippi advocated secession should Kansas be admitted as a free state. Buchanan chose to endorse the pro-slavery Lecompton government.

Buchanan appointed Robert J. Walker to replace John W. Geary as Territorial Governor, with the expectation he would assist the proslavery faction in gaining approval of a new constitution. However, Walker wavered on the slavery question, and there ensued conflicting referendums from Topeka and Lecompton, where election fraud occurred. In October 1857, the Lecompton government framed the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution and sent it to Buchanan without a referendum. Buchanan reluctantly rejected it, and he dispatched federal agents to arrange a compromise. The Lecompton government agreed to a referendum limited solely to the slavery question.

Despite the protests of Walker and two former Kansas governors, Buchanan decided to accept the Lecompton Constitution. In a December 1857 meeting with Stephen Douglas, the chairman of the Senate Committee on Territories, Buchanan demanded that all Democrats support the administration's position of admitting Kansas under the Lecompton Constitution. On February 2, he transmitted the Lecompton Constitution to Congress. He also transmitted a message that attacked the "revolutionary government" in Topeka, conflating them with the Mormons in Utah. Buchanan made every effort to secure congressional approval, offering favors, patronage appointments, and even cash for votes. The Lecompton Constitution won the approval of the Senate in March, but a combination of Know-Nothings, Republicans, and northern Democrats defeated the bill in the House. Rather than accepting defeat, Buchanan backed the 1858 English Bill, which offered Kansans immediate statehood and vast public lands in exchange for accepting the Lecompton Constitution. In August 1858, Kansans by referendum strongly rejected the Lecompton Constitution.

The dispute over Kansas became the battlefront for control of the Democratic Party. On one side were Buchanan, most Southern Democrats, and the "doughfaces". On the other side were Douglas and most northern Democrats plus a few Southerners. Douglas's faction continued to support the doctrine of popular sovereignty, while Buchanan insisted that Democrats respect the Dred Scott decision and its repudiation of federal interference with slavery in the territories. The struggle ended only with Buchanan's presidency. In the interim he used his patronage powers to remove Douglas sympathizers in Illinois and Washington, D.C., and installed pro-administration Democrats, including postmasters.

1858 mid-term elections[edit]

Douglas's Senate term was coming to an end in 1859, with the Illinois legislature, elected in 1858, determining whether Douglas would win re-election. The Senate seat was the primary issue of the legislative election, marked by the famous debates between Douglas and his Republican opponent for the seat, Abraham Lincoln. Buchanan, working through federal patronage appointees in Illinois, ran candidates for the legislature in competition with both the Republicans and the Douglas Democrats. This could easily have thrown the election to the Republicans, and showed the depth of Buchanan's animosity toward Douglas. In the end, Douglas Democrats won the legislative election and Douglas was re-elected to the Senate. In that year's elections, Douglas forces took control throughout the North, except in Buchanan's home state of Pennsylvania. Buchanan's support was otherwise reduced to a narrow base of southerners.

The division between northern and southern Democrats allowed the Republicans to win a plurality of the House in the 1858 elections, and allowed them to block most of Buchanan's agenda. Buchanan, in turn, added to the hostility with his veto of six substantial pieces of Republican legislation. Among these measures were the Homestead Act, which would have given 160 acres of public land to settlers who remained on the land for five years, and the Morrill Act, which would have granted public lands to establish land-grant colleges. Buchanan argued that these acts were unconstitutional.

Foreign policy[edit]

Buchanan took office with an ambitious foreign policy, designed to establish U.S. hegemony over Central America at the expense of Great Britain. He hoped to re-negotiate the Clayton–Bulwer Treaty, which he thought limited U.S. influence in the region. He also sought to establish American protectorates over the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora, and most importantly, he hoped to achieve his long-term goal of acquiring Cuba. After long negotiations with the British, he convinced them to cede the Bay Islands to Honduras and the Mosquito Coast to Nicaragua. However, Buchanan's ambitions in Cuba and Mexico were largely blocked by the House of Representatives.

Buchanan also considered buying Alaska from the Russian Empire, as a colony for Mormon settlers, but he and the Russians were unable to agree upon a price. In China, the administration won trade concessions in the Treaty of Tientsin. In 1858, Buchanan ordered the Paraguay expedition to punish Paraguay for firing on the USS Water Witch, and the expedition resulted in a Paraguayan apology and payment of an indemnity. The chiefs of Raiatea and Tahaa in the South Pacific, refusing to accept the rule of King Tamatoa V, unsuccessfully petitioned the United States to accept the islands under a protectorate in June 1858.

Buchanan was offered a herd of elephants by King Rama IV of Siam, though the letter arrived after Buchanan's departure from office. As Buchanan's successor, Lincoln declined the King's offer, citing the unsuitable climate.[68] Other presidential pets included a pair of bald eagles and a Newfoundland dog.[69]

Covode Committee[edit]

In March 1860, the House impaneled the Covode Committee to investigate the administration for alleged impeachable offenses, such as bribery and extortion of representatives. The committee, three Republicans and two Democrats, was accused by Buchanan's supporters of being nakedly partisan; they charged its chairman, Republican Rep. John Covode, with acting on a personal grudge from a disputed land grant designed to benefit Covode's railroad company. The Democratic committee members, as well as Democratic witnesses, were enthusiastic in their condemnation of Buchanan.

The committee was unable to establish grounds for impeaching Buchanan; however, the majority report issued on June 17 alleged corruption and abuse of power among members of his cabinet. The report also included accusations from Republicans that Buchanan had attempted to bribe members of Congress, in connection with the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution of Kansas. The Democrats pointed out that evidence was scarce, but did not refute the allegations; one of the Democratic members, Rep. James Robinson, stated that he agreed with the Republicans, though he did not sign it.

Buchanan claimed to have "passed triumphantly through this ordeal" with complete vindication. Republican operatives distributed thousands of copies of the Covode Committee report throughout the nation as campaign material in that year's presidential election.

Election of 1860[edit]

Main article: 1860 United States presidential election

As he had promised in his inaugural address, Buchanan did not seek re-election. He went so far as to tell his ultimate successor, “If you are as happy in entering the White House as I shall feel on returning to Wheatland [his estate near Lancaster, Pennsylvania], you are a happy man.”

The 1860 Democratic National Convention convened in April of that year and, though Douglas led after every ballot, he was unable to win the two-thirds majority required. The convention adjourned after 53 ballots, and re-convened in Baltimore in June. After Douglas finally won the nomination, several Southerners refused to accept the outcome, and nominated Vice President Breckinridge as their own candidate. Douglas and Breckinridge agreed on most issues except the protection of slavery. Buchanan, nursing a grudge against Douglas, failed to reconcile the party, and tepidly supported Breckinridge. With the splintering of the Democratic Party, Republican nominee Abraham Lincoln won a four-way election that also included John Bell of the Constitutional Union Party. Lincoln's support in the North was enough to give him an Electoral College majority. Buchanan became the last Democrat to win a presidential election until Grover Cleveland in 1884.

As early as October, the army's Commanding General, Winfield Scott, an opponent of Buchanan, warned him that Lincoln's election would likely cause at least seven states to secede from the union. He recommended that massive amounts of federal troops and artillery be deployed to those states to protect federal property, although he also warned that few reinforcements were available. Since 1857 Congress had failed to heed calls for a stronger militia and allowed the army to fall into deplorable condition. Buchanan distrusted Scott and ignored his recommendations. After Lincoln's election, Buchanan directed War Secretary Floyd to reinforce southern forts with such provisions, arms, and men as were available; however, Floyd persuaded him to revoke the order.

Secession[edit]

With Lincoln's victory, talk of secession and disunion reached a boiling point, putting the burden on Buchanan to address it in his final speech to Congress on December 10. In his message, which was anticipated by both factions, Buchanan denied the right of states to secede but maintained the federal government was without power to prevent them. He placed the blame for the crisis solely on "intemperate interference of the Northern people with the question of slavery in the Southern States," and suggested that if they did not "repeal their unconstitutional and obnoxious enactments ... the injured States, after having first used all peaceful and constitutional means to obtain redress, would be justified in revolutionary resistance to the Government of the Union."[79][80] Buchanan's only suggestion to solve the crisis was "an explanatory amendment" affirming the constitutionality of slavery in the states, the fugitive slave laws, and popular sovereignty in the territories.[79] His address was sharply criticized both by the North, for its refusal to stop secession, and the South, for denying its right to secede. Five days after the address was delivered, Treasury Secretary Howell Cobb resigned, as his views had become irreconcilable with the President's.[82]

Map of U.S. showing two kinds of Union states, two phases of secession and territories

Status of the states, 1861

   States that seceded before April 15, 1861

   States that seceded after April 15, 1861

   Union states that permitted slavery

   Union states that banned slavery

   Territories

South Carolina, long the most radical Southern state, seceded from the Union on December 20, 1860. However, Unionist sentiment remained strong among many in the South, and Buchanan sought to appeal to the Southern moderates who might prevent secession in other states. He proposed passage of constitutional amendments protecting slavery in the states and territories. He also met with South Carolinian commissioners in an attempt to resolve the situation at Fort Sumter, which federal forces remained in control of despite its location in Charleston, South Carolina. He refused to dismiss Interior Secretary Jacob Thompson after the latter was chosen as Mississippi's agent to discuss secession, and he refused to fire Secretary of War John B. Floyd despite an embezzlement scandal. Floyd ended up resigning, but not before sending numerous firearms to Southern states, where they eventually fell into the hands of the Confederacy. Despite Floyd's resignation, Buchanan continued to seek the advice of counselors from the Deep South, including Jefferson Davis and William Henry Trescot.

Efforts were made in vain by Sen. John J. Crittenden, Rep. Thomas Corwin, and former president John Tyler to negotiate a compromise to stop secession, with Buchanan's support. Failed attempts were also made by a group of governors meeting in New York. Buchanan secretly asked President-elect Lincoln to call for a national referendum on the issue of slavery, but Lincoln declined.

Despite the efforts of Buchanan and others, six more slave states seceded by the end of January 1861. Buchanan replaced the departed Southern cabinet members with John Adams Dix, Edwin M. Stanton, and Joseph Holt, all of whom were committed to preserving the Union. When Buchanan considered surrendering Fort Sumter, the new cabinet members threatened to resign, and Buchanan relented. On January 5, Buchanan decided to reinforce Fort Sumter, sending the Star of the West with 250 men and supplies. However, he failed to ask Major Robert Anderson to provide covering fire for the ship, and it was forced to return North without delivering troops or supplies. Buchanan chose not to respond to this act of war, and instead sought to find a compromise to avoid secession. He received a March 3 message from Anderson, that supplies were running low, but the response became Lincoln's to make, as the latter succeeded to the presidency the next day.

Proposed constitutional amendment[edit]

On March 2, 1861, Congress approved an amendment to the United States Constitution that would shield "domestic institutions" of the states, including slavery, from the constitutional amendment process and from abolition or interference by Congress. The proposed amendment was submitted to the state legislatures for ratification. Commonly known as the Corwin Amendment, it was never ratified by the requisite number of states.

States admitted to the Union[edit]

Three new states were admitted to the Union while Buchanan was in office:

Final years (1861–1868)[edit]

Buchanan in his later years. c. mid-1860s

The Civil War erupted within two months of Buchanan's retirement. He supported the Union, writing to former colleagues that, "the assault upon Sumter was the commencement of war by the Confederate states, and no alternative was left but to prosecute it with vigor on our part."[88] He also wrote a letter to his fellow Pennsylvania Democrats, urging them to "join the many thousands of brave & patriotic volunteers who are already in the field."[88]

Buchanan was dedicated to defending his actions prior to the Civil War, which was referred to by some as "Buchanan's War".[88] He received threatening letters daily, and stores displayed Buchanan's likeness with the eyes inked red, a noose drawn around his neck and the word "TRAITOR" written across his forehead. The Senate proposed a resolution of condemnation which ultimately failed, and newspapers accused him of colluding with the Confederacy. His former cabinet members, five of whom had been given jobs in the Lincoln administration, refused to defend Buchanan publicly.

Buchanan became distraught by the vitriolic attacks levied against him, and fell sick and depressed. In October 1862, he defended himself in an exchange of letters with Winfield Scott, published in the National Intelligencer. He soon began writing his fullest public defense, in the form of his memoir Mr. Buchanan's Administration on the Eve of Rebellion, which was published in 1866.

Soon after the publication of the memoir, Buchanan caught a cold in May 1868, which quickly worsened due to his advanced age. He died on June 1, 1868, of respiratory failure at the age of 77 at his home at Wheatland. He was interred in Woodward Hill Cemetery in Lancaster.

Political views[edit]

Buchanan was often considered by anti-slavery northerners a "doughface", a northern man with pro-southern principles. Shortly after his election, he said that the "great object" of his administration was "to arrest, if possible, the agitation of the Slavery question in the North and to destroy sectional parties". Buchanan believed the abolitionists were preventing the solution to the slavery problem. He stated, "Before [the abolitionists] commenced this agitation, a very large and growing party existed in several of the slave states in favor of the gradual abolition of slavery; and now not a voice is heard there in support of such a measure. The abolitionists have postponed the emancipation of the slaves in three or four states for at least half a century." In deference to the intentions of the typical slaveholder, he was willing to provide the benefit of the doubt. In his third annual message to Congress, the president claimed that the slaves were "treated with kindness and humanity. ... Both the philanthropy and the self-interest of the master have combined to produce this humane result."[94]

Buchanan thought restraint was the essence of good self-government. He believed the constitution comprised "... restraints, imposed not by arbitrary authority, but by the people upon themselves and their representatives. ... In an enlarged view, the people's interests may seem identical, but to the eye of local and sectional prejudice, they always appear to be conflicting ... and the jealousies that will perpetually arise can be repressed only by the mutual forbearance which pervades the constitution." Regarding slavery and the Constitution, he stated: "Although in Pennsylvania we are all opposed to slavery in the abstract, we can never violate the constitutional compact we have with our sister states. Their rights will be held sacred by us. Under the constitution it is their own question; and there let it remain."

One of the prominent issues of the day was tariffs. Buchanan was conflicted by free trade as well as prohibitive tariffs, since either would benefit one section of the country to the detriment of the other. As a senator from Pennsylvania, he said: "I am viewed as the strongest advocate of protection in other states, whilst I am denounced as its enemy in Pennsylvania."

Buchanan was also torn between his desire to expand the country for the general welfare of the nation, and to guarantee the rights of the people settling particular areas. On territorial expansion, he said, "What, sir? Prevent the people from crossing the Rocky Mountains? You might just as well command the Niagara not to flow. We must fulfill our destiny." On the resulting spread of slavery, through unconditional expansion, he stated: "I feel a strong repugnance by any act of mine to extend the present limits of the Union over a new slave-holding territory." For instance, he hoped the acquisition of Texas would "be the means of limiting, not enlarging, the dominion of slavery."

Romantic life[edit]

In 1818, Buchanan met Anne Caroline Coleman at a grand ball in Lancaster, and the two began courting. Anne was the daughter of wealthy iron manufacturer Robert Coleman. She was also the sister-in-law of Philadelphia judge Joseph Hemphill, one of Buchanan's colleagues. By 1819, the two were engaged, but spent little time together. Buchanan was busy with his law firm and political projects during the Panic of 1819, which took him away from Coleman for weeks at a time. Rumors abounded, as some suggested that he was marrying her only for money; others said he was involved with other (unidentified) women. Letters from Coleman revealed she was aware of several rumors.[99] She broke off the engagement, and soon afterward, on December 9, 1819, suddenly died. Buchanan wrote to her father for permission to attend the funeral, which was refused.[101]

After Coleman's death, Buchanan never courted another woman. At the time of her funeral, he said that, "I feel happiness has fled from me forever."[102] During his presidency, an orphaned niece, Harriet Lane, whom he had adopted, served as official White House hostess.[103] There was an unfounded rumor that he had an affair with President Polk's widow, Sarah Childress Polk.[104]

Buchanan's lifelong bachelorhood after Anne Coleman's death has drawn interest and speculation. Some conjecture that Anne's death merely served to deflect questions about Buchanan's sexuality and bachelorhood.[102] Several writers have surmised that he was homosexual, including James W. Loewen,[106] Robert P. Watson, and Shelley Ross. One of his biographers, Jean Baker, suggests that Buchanan was celibate, if not asexual.

Buchanan had a close relationship with William Rufus King, which became a popular target of gossip. King was an Alabama politician who briefly served as vice president under Franklin Pierce. Buchanan and King lived together in a Washington boardinghouse and attended social functions together from 1834 until 1844. Such a living arrangement was then common, though King once referred to the relationship as a "communion".[104] Andrew Jackson called King "Miss Nancy" and Buchanan's Postmaster General Aaron V. Brown referred to King as Buchanan's "better half", "wife", and "Aunt Fancy".[110][111] Loewen indicated that Buchanan late in life wrote a letter acknowledging that he might marry a woman who could accept his "lack of ardent or romantic affection".[113][114] Catherine Thompson, the wife of cabinet member Jacob Thompson, later noted that "there was something unhealthy in the president's attitude."[104] King died of tuberculosis shortly after Pierce's inauguration, four years before Buchanan became president. Buchanan described him as "among the best, the purest and most consistent public men I have known".[104] Biographer Baker opines that both men's nieces may have destroyed correspondence between the two men. However, she believes that their surviving letters illustrate only "the affection of a special friendship".

Legacy[edit]

Historical reputation[edit]

Though Buchanan predicted that "history will vindicate my memory,"[115] historians have criticized Buchanan for his unwillingness or inability to act in the face of secession. Historical rankings of presidents of the United States without exception place Buchanan among the least successful presidents. When scholars are surveyed, he ranks at or near the bottom in terms of vision/agenda-setting, domestic leadership, foreign policy leadership, moral authority, and positive historical significance of their legacy.[116]

Buchanan biographer Philip Klein focuses upon challenges Buchanan faced:

Buchanan assumed leadership ... when an unprecedented wave of angry passion was sweeping over the nation. That he held the hostile sections in check during these revolutionary times was in itself a remarkable achievement. His weaknesses in the stormy years of his presidency were magnified by enraged partisans of the North and South. His many talents, which in a quieter era might have gained for him a place among the great presidents, were quickly overshadowed by the cataclysmic events of civil war and by the towering Abraham Lincoln.

Biographer Jean Baker is less charitable to Buchanan, saying in 2004:

Americans have conveniently misled themselves about the presidency of James Buchanan, preferring to classify him as indecisive and inactive ... In fact Buchanan's failing during the crisis over the Union was not inactivity, but rather his partiality for the South, a favoritism that bordered on disloyalty in an officer pledged to defend all the United States. He was that most dangerous of chief executives, a stubborn, mistaken ideologue whose principles held no room for compromise. His experience in government had only rendered him too self-confident to consider other views. In his betrayal of the national trust, Buchanan came closer to committing treason than any other president in American history.

Memorials[edit]

A bronze and granite memorial near the southeast corner of Washington, D.C.'s Meridian Hill Park was designed by architect William Gorden Beecher and sculpted by Maryland artist Hans Schuler. It was commissioned in 1916 but not approved by the U.S. Congress until 1918, and not completed and unveiled until June 26, 1930. The memorial features a statue of Buchanan, bookended by male and female classical figures representing law and diplomacy, with engraved text reading: "The incorruptible statesman whose walk was upon the mountain ranges of the law," a quote from a member of Buchanan's cabinet, Jeremiah S. Black.

Buchanan memorial, Washington, D.C.

An earlier monument was constructed in 1907–08 and dedicated in 1911, on the site of Buchanan's birthplace in Stony Batter, Pennsylvania. Part of the original 18.5-acre (75,000 m2) memorial site is a 250-ton pyramid structure that stands on the site of the original cabin where Buchanan was born. The monument was designed to show the original weathered surface of the native rubble and mortar.[120]

Three counties are named in his honor, in Iowa, Missouri, and Virginia. Another in Texas was christened in 1858 but renamed Stephens County, after the newly elected Vice President of the Confederate States of America, Alexander Stephens, in 1861. The city of Buchanan, Michigan, was also named after him.[122] Several other communities are named after him: the unincorporated community of Buchanan, Indiana, the city of Buchanan, Georgia, the town of Buchanan, Wisconsin, and the townships of Buchanan Township, Michigan, and Buchanan, Missouri.

James Buchanan High School is a small, rural high school located on the outskirts of his childhood hometown, Mercersburg, Pennsylvania.

Popular culture depictions[edit]

Buchanan and his legacy are central to the film Raising Buchanan (2019). He is portrayed by René Auberjonois.[123]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Ellis, Franklin; Evans, Samuel (1883). History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. 1. Philadelphia: Everts & Peck. p. 214.
  2. ^Curtis, George Ticknor (1883). Life of James Buchanan, Fifteenth President of the United States. 1. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 10. ISBN .
  3. ^"American Philosophical Society Member History". American Philosophical Society. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
  4. ^"Buchanan Family 1430 – 1903". ancestry.com. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
  5. ^Montgomery, Thomas Lynch (1907). Pennsylvania Archives: Sixth Series. VII. Harrisburg, PA: Harrisburg Publishing Company. p. 906.
  6. ^O'Brien, Marco. "Military trivia facts". Military.com. Military Advantage, a division of Monster Worldwide. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
  7. ^Secretary of the United States Senate. "Gag rule". United States Senate. Retrieved January 25, 2020.
  8. ^"Nathan Clifford, 1858–1881". supremecourthistory.org. The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  9. ^"Judges of the United States Courts". Biographical Directory of Federal Judges. Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  10. ^"Lincoln Rejects the King of Siam's Offer of Elephants". American Battlefield Trust. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  11. ^"Top Ten Strangest Presidential Pets". PetMD. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  12. ^ abBuchanan (1860)
  13. ^"James Buchanan, Fourth Annual Message to Congress on the State of the Union, December 3, 1860". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
  14. ^"The Resignation of Secretary Cobb. The Correspondence". The New York Times. December 14, 1860.
  15. ^"Today in History: May 11". loc.gov. Library of Congress.
  16. ^"Oregon". A+E Networks Corp. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
  17. ^ abcBirkner, Michael (September 20, 2005). "Buchanan's Civil War". Archived from the original on October 19, 2011. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
  18. ^"Third Annual Message (December 19, 1859)". The Miller Center at the University of Virginia. Archived from the original on January 6, 2012. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
  19. ^Boertlein, John (2010). Presidential Confidential: Sex, Scandal, Murder and Mayhem in the Oval Office. Cincinnati, Ohio: Clerisy Press. p. 101. ISBN .
  20. ^Sandburg, Carl (1939). Abraham Lincoln: The War Years. 1. New York City: Harcourt, Brace & Company. p. 22. ISBN .
  21. ^ abDunn, Charles (1999). The Scarlet Thread of Scandal: Morality and the American Presidency. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.ISBN .
  22. ^"Harriet Lane". whitehouse.gov. Retrieved May 11, 2013 – via National Archives.
  23. ^ abcdWatson 2012, p. 247
  24. ^Loewen, James W. (1999). Lies across America: What our Historic Sites get Wrong. New York City: The New Press. pp. 367–9. ISBN .
  25. ^The Wordsworth Book of Euphemisms by Judith S. Neaman and Carole G. Silver (Wordsworth Editions Ltd., Hertfordshire)
  26. ^Loewen 1999 p. 367
  27. ^Loewen 1999 pp. 367–370
  28. ^Loewen, James (2009). Lies Across America. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. pp. 342–45.
  29. ^"Buchanan's Birthplace State Park". Pennsylvania State Parks. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Retrieved March 28, 2009.
  30. ^"The top US presidents: First poll of UK experts". BBC News. January 17, 2011.
  31. ^"Buchanan's Birthplace State Park". Retrieved June 4, 2012.
  32. ^Hoogterp, Edward (2006). West Michigan Almanac, p. 168. The University of Michigan Press & The Petoskey Publishing Company.
  33. ^"Raising Buchanan on IMDB". IMDb. April 12, 2019.

Works cited[edit]

  • Armitage, Susan H.; Faragher, John Mack; Buhle, Mari Jo; Czitrom, Daniel J. (2005). Out of Many, TLC Combined, Revised Printing (4th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN .
  • Baker, Jean H. (2004). James Buchanan. Times Books. ISBN .excerpt and text search
  • Beatty, Michael A. (2001). County Name Origins of the United States. McFarland. ISBN .
  • Chadwick, Bruce (2008). 1858: Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant and the War They Failed to See. Sourcebooks, Inc. ISBN .
  • Curtis, George Ticknor (1883). Life of James Buchanan: Fifteenth President of the United States. 2. Harper & Brothers. ISBN .
  • Flude, Anthony G. (March 2012). "Manuscript XXIII: A Raiatean Petition for American Protection". The Journal of Pacific History. Canberra: Australian National University. 47 (1): 111–121. doi:10.1080/00223344.2011.632982. OCLC 785915823. S2CID 159847026.
Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Buchanan

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James Buchanan

15th president of the United States (1857–1861)

This article is about the 15th president of the United States. For other people with the same name, see James Best buy fort smith (disambiguation).

James Buchanan

Photograph of an elderly James Buchanan

Photograph by Mathew Brady, 1850–1868

In office
March 4, 1857 – March 4, 1861
Vice PresidentJohn C. Breckinridge
Preceded byFranklin Pierce
Succeeded byAbraham Lincoln
In office
August 23, 1853 – March 15, 1856
PresidentFranklin Pierce
Preceded byJoseph Reed Ingersoll
Succeeded byGeorge M. Dallas
In office
March 10, 1845 – March 7, 1849
President
Preceded byJohn C. Calhoun
Succeeded byJohn M. Clayton
In office
December 6, 1834 – March 5, 1845
Preceded byWilliam Wilkins
Succeeded bySimon Cameron
In office
June 11, 1832 – August 5, 1833
PresidentAndrew Jackson
Preceded byJohn Randolph
Succeeded byWilliam Wilkins
In office
March 5, 1829 – March 3, 1831
Preceded byPhilip P. Barbour
Succeeded byWarren R. Davis
In office
March 4, 1821 – March 3, 1831
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Constituency3rd district (1821–1823)
4th district (1823–1831)
In office
1814–1816
Preceded byEmanuel Reigart, Joel Lightner, Jacob Grosh, John Graff, Henry Hambright, Robert Maxwell
Succeeded byJoel Lightner, Hugh Martin, John Forrey, Henry Hambright, Jasper Slaymaker, Jacob Grosh[1]
Born(1791-04-23)April 23, 1791
Cove Gap, Pennsylvania, U.S.
DiedJune 1, 1868(1868-06-01) (aged 77)
Lancaster, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Cause of deathRespiratory failure
Resting placeWoodward Hill Cemetery
Political party
RelationsHarriet Lane (niece)
EducationDickinson College (BA)
Occupation
SignatureCursive signature in ink
Branch/servicePennsylvania Militia
Years of service1814[2]
RankPrivate
UnitHenry Shippen's Company, 1st Brigade, 4th Division
Battles/wars

James Buchanan Jr. (buh-CAN-nən; April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the 15th president of the United States from 1857 to 1861. He previously served as secretary of state from 1845 to 1849 and represented Pennsylvania in both houses of the U.S. Congress. He was advocate for states' rights, in particular pertaining to the institution of slavery, and minimized the role of the federal government in the nation's final years before the Civil War.

Buchanan was a prominent lawyer in Pennsylvania and won his first election to the state's House of Representatives as a Federalist. He was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1820 and retained that post for 11 years, aligning with Andrew Jackson's Democratic Party. Buchanan served as Jackson's minister to Russia (1832). He won election in 1834 as a U.S. senator from Pennsylvania and also held that position for 11 years. Buchanan was appointed to serve as President James K. Polk's secretary of state in 1845, and eight years later was named as President Franklin Pierce's minister to the United Kingdom. In 1846, Buchanan was elected as a member to the American Philosophical Society.[3]

Beginning in 1844, Buchanan became a regular contender for the Democratic party's presidential nomination. He was finally nominated in 1856, defeating incumbent Franklin Pierce and Senator Stephen A. Douglas at the Democratic National Convention; he benefited from the fact that he had been out of the country (as ambassador in London) and thus had not been involved in slavery issues. Buchanan and running mate John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky carried every slave state except Maryland, defeating anti-slavery Republican John C. Frémont and Know-Nothing former president Millard Fillmore to win the 1856 presidential election.

As President, Buchanan intervened in the Supreme Court to gather majority support of the pro-slavery and anti-black decision in the Dred Scott case. He did what Southern leaders wanted in attempting to engineer Kansas coming into the Union as a slave state under the Lecompton Constitution. He thereby angered not only the Republicans but also many Northern Democrats. Buchanan honored his pledge to serve only one term, and supported Breckinridge's unsuccessful candidacy in the 1860 presidential election. He failed to reconcile the fractured Democratic party due to a simmering grudge against Stephen Douglas, leading to a four-way electoral split and the election of Republican and former Congressman Abraham Lincoln.

Just weeks after Lincoln was elected as Buchanan's successor, Southern states began seceding from the Union, precipitating the American Civil War. Buchanan's bumbling leadership during his lame duck period was widely criticized. He simultaneously angered the North by not stopping secession, and the South by not acceding to their secession. He supported the ill-fated Corwin Amendment in an attempt to reconcile the country, but it was too little too late. He made an unsuccessful attempt to reinforce the defenders of Fort Sumter, but otherwise refrained from taking any action to prepare the military. His failure to forestall the Civil War has been described alternatively as incompetent inaction, or passive acceptance of the South. Many contemporaries blamed him seating chart at jack trice stadium the war, and he was much reviled after his presidency. He spent his last years defending his reputation. In his personal life, Buchanan never married, and, as of 2021, he is the only U.S. president to remain a lifelong bachelor. Biographers have variously suggested that he was celibate, homosexual, or asexual. Buchanan died of respiratory failure in 1868, and was buried in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, where he had lived for nearly 60 years. Modern historians and critics condemn him for not addressing the issue of slavery or forestalling the secession of the Southern states over it. Historians and scholars consistently rank Buchanan as one of the worst presidents in American history.

Early life[edit]

James Buchanan Jr. was born April 23, 1791, in a log cabin in Cove Gap, Pennsylvania, to James Buchanan Sr. (1761–1821) and Elizabeth Speer (1767–1833).[4] His parents were both of Ulster Scot descent; his father emigrated from Ramelton, Ireland in 1783. Shortly after Buchanan's birth the family moved to a farm near Mercersburg, Pennsylvania, and in 1794 the family moved into the town. His father became the wealthiest resident there, as a merchant, farmer, and real estate investor.

Buchanan attended the Old Stone Academy and then Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania. He was nearly expelled for bad behavior, but pleaded for a second chance and ultimately graduated with honors on September 19, 1809. Later that year he moved to the state capital at Lancaster. James Hopkins, a leading lawyer there, accepted Buchanan as an apprentice, and in 1812 he was admitted to the Pennsylvania bar. Many other lawyers moved to Harrisburg when it became the state capital in 1812, but Buchanan made Lancaster his lifelong home. His income rapidly rose after he established his practice, and by 1821 he was earning over $11,000 per year (equivalent to $210,000 in 2020). He handled various types of cases, including a much-publicized impeachment trial, where he successfully defended Pennsylvania Judge Walter Franklin.

Buchanan began his they call me juan they call me jose career as a member of the Federalist Party, and was elected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives (1814–1816). The legislature met for only three months a year, but Buchanan's service helped him acquire more clients. Politically, he supported federally-funded internal improvements, a high tariff, and a national bank. He became a strong critic of Democratic-Republican President James Madison during the War of 1812.

He was a Freemason, and served as the Master of Masonic Lodge No. 43 in Lancaster, and as a District Deputy Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania.

Military service[edit]

When the British invaded neighboring Maryland in 1814, he served in the defense of Baltimore as a private in Henry Shippen's Company, 1st Brigade, 4th Division, Pennsylvania Militia, a unit of yagers.[13] Buchanan is the only president with military experience who was not an officer.[14] He is also the last president who served in the War of 1812.[citation needed]

Congressional career[edit]

Main article: Electoral history of James Buchanan

U.S. House service[edit]

In 1820 Buchanan ran for the U.S. House of Representatives and won, though his Federalist Party was waning. During his tenure in Congress, he became a supporter of Andrew Jackson and an avid defender of states' rights. After the 1824 presidential election, he helped organize Jackson's followers into the Democratic Party, and he became a prominent Pennsylvania Democrat. In Washington, he was personally close with many southern Congressmen, and viewed some New England Congressmen as dangerous radicals. He was appointed to the Committee of Members 1st federal credit union carlisle in his first year, and he eventually became Chairman of the U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary. He declined re-nomination to a sixth term, and briefly returned to private life.

Minister to Russia[edit]

After Jackson was re-elected in 1832, he offered Buchanan the position of United States Ambassador to Russia. Buchanan was reluctant to leave the country but ultimately agreed. He served as ambassador for 18 months, during which time he learned French, the trade language of diplomacy in the nineteenth century. He helped negotiate commercial and maritime treaties with the Russian Empire.

U.S. Senate service[edit]

Buchanan returned home and was elected by the Pennsylvania state legislature to succeed William Wilkins in the U.S. Senate. Wilkins in turn replaced Buchanan as the ambassador to Russia. The Jacksonian Buchanan, who was re-elected in 1836 and 1842, opposed the re-chartering of the Second Bank of the United States and sought to expunge a congressional censure of Jackson stemming from the Bank War.

Buchanan also opposed a gag rule sponsored by John C. Calhoun that would have suppressed anti-slavery petitions. He joined the majority in blocking the rule, with most senators of the belief that it would have the reverse effect of strengthening the abolitionists.[18] He said, "We have just as little right to interfere with slavery in the South, as we have to touch the right of petition." Buchanan thought that the issue of slavery was the domain of the states, and he faulted abolitionists for exciting passions over the issue.

His support of states' rights was matched by his support for Manifest Destiny, and he opposed the Webster–Ashburton Treaty for its "surrender" of lands to the United Kingdom. Buchanan also argued for the annexation of both Texas and the Oregon Country. In the lead-up to the 1844 Democratic National Convention, Buchanan positioned himself as a potential alternative to former President Martin Van Buren, but the nomination went to James K. Polk, who won the election.

Diplomatic career[edit]

Secretary of State[edit]

Buchanan (second from the left) in Polk's cabinet, 1849

Buchanan was offered the position of Secretary of State in the Polk administration, as well as the alternative of serving on the Supreme Court. He accepted the State Department post and served for the duration of Polk's single term in office. He and Polk nearly doubled the territory of the United States through the Oregon Treaty and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which included territory that is now Texas, California, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, and Colorado. In negotiations with Britain over Oregon, Buchanan at first favored a compromise, but later advocated for annexation of the entire territory. Eventually, he agreed to a division at the 49th parallel. After the outbreak of the Mexican–American War, he advised Polk against taking territory south of the Rio Grande River and New Mexico. However, as the war came to an end, Buchanan argued for the annexation of further territory, and Polk began to suspect that Buchanan was primarily angling to become president. Buchanan did quietly seek the nomination at the 1848 Democratic National Convention, as Polk had promised to serve only one term, but Senator Lewis Cass of Michigan was nominated.

Ambassador to the United Kingdom[edit]

Bust of James Buchanan by Henry Dexterat the National Portrait Gallery

With the 1848 election of Whig Zachary Taylor, Buchanan returned to private life. He bought the house of Wheatland on the outskirts of Lancaster and entertained various visitors, while monitoring political events. In 1852, he was named president of the Board of Trustees of Franklin and Marshall College in Lancaster, and he served in this capacity until 1866. He quietly campaigned for the 1852 Democratic presidential nomination, writing a public letter that deplored the Wilmot Proviso, which proposed to ban slavery in new territories. He became known as a "doughface" due to his sympathy towards the South. At the 1852 Democratic National Convention, he won the support of many southern delegates but failed to win the two-thirds support needed for the presidential nomination, which went to Franklin Pierce. Buchanan declined to serve as the vice presidential nominee, and the convention instead nominated his close friend, William King. Pierce won the 1852 election, and Buchanan accepted the position of United States Minister to indigo credit card customer service email United Kingdom.

Buchanan sailed for England in the summer of 1853, and he remained abroad for the next three years. In 1850, the United States and Great Britain had signed the Clayton–Bulwer Treaty, which committed both countries to joint control of any future canal that would connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans through Central America. Buchanan met repeatedly with Lord Clarendon, the British foreign minister, in hopes of pressuring the British to withdraw from Central America. He also focussed on the potential annexation of Cuba, which had long interested him. At Pierce's prompting, Buchanan met in Ostend, Belgium with U.S. Ambassador to Spain Pierre Soulé and U.S. Ambassador to France John Mason. A memorandum draft resulted, called the Ostend Manifesto, which proposed the purchase of Cuba from Spain, then in the midst of revolution and near bankruptcy. The document declared the island "as necessary to the North American republic as any of its present . family of states". Against Buchanan's recommendation, the final draft of the manifesto suggested that "wresting it from Spain", if Spain refused to sell, would be justified "by every law, human and Divine". The manifesto, generally considered a blunder, was never acted upon, and weakened the Pierce administration and reduced support for Manifest Destiny.

[edit]

Main article: 1856 United States presidential election

1856 Map of electoral votes

Buchanan's service abroad allowed him to conveniently avoid the debate over the Kansas–Nebraska Act then roiling the country in the slavery dispute. While he did not overtly seek the presidency, he assented to the movement on his behalf. The 1856 Democratic National Convention met in June 1856, producing a platform that reflected his views, including support for the Fugitive Slave Law, which required the return of escaped slaves. The platform also called for an end to anti-slavery agitation, and U.S. "ascendancy in the Gulf of Mexico". President Pierce hoped for re-nomination, while Senator Stephen A. Douglas also loomed as a strong candidate. Buchanan led on the first ballot, boosted by the support of powerful Senators John Slidell, Jesse Bright, and Thomas F. Bayard, who presented Buchanan as an experienced leader appealing to the North and South. He won the nomination after seventeen ballots. He was joined on the ticket by John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky, in order to placate supporters of Pierce and Douglas, with whom Breckinridge had been allied.

Buchanan faced two candidates in the general election: former Whig President Millard Fillmore ran as the American Party (or "Know-Nothing") candidate, while John C. Frémont ran as the Republican nominee. Buchanan did not actively campaign, but he wrote letters and pledged to uphold the Democratic platform. In the election, he carried every slave state except for Maryland, as better homes and gardens real estate san francisco as five slavery-free states, including his home state of Pennsylvania. He won 45 percent of the popular vote and decisively won the electoral vote, taking 174 of 296 votes. His election made him the first president from Pennsylvania. In a combative victory speech, Buchanan denounced Republicans, calling them a "dangerous" and "geographical" party that had unfairly attacked the South. He also declared, "the object of my administration will be to destroy sectional party, North or South, and to restore harmony to the Union under a national and conservative government." He set about this initially by feigning a sectional balance in his cabinet appointments.

[edit]

Main article: Presidency of James Buchanan

Inauguration[edit]

Main article: Inauguration of James Buchanan

Buchanan was inaugurated on March 4, 1857, taking the oath of office from Chief JusticeRoger B. Taney. In his inaugural address, Buchanan committed himself to serving only one term, as his predecessor had done. He expressed an abhorrence for the growing divisions over slavery and its status in the territories, while saying that Congress should play no role in determining the status of slavery in the states or territories. He also declared his support for popular sovereignty. Buchanan recommended that a federal slave code be enacted to protect the rights of slave-owners in federal territories. He alluded to a then-pending Supreme Court case, Dred Scott v. Sandford, which he said would permanently settle the issue of slavery. Dred Scott was a slave who was temporarily taken from a slave state to a free territory by his owner, John Sanford (the court misspelled his name). After Scott returned to the slave state, he filed a petition for his freedom based on his time in the free territory. The Dred Scott decision, rendered after Buchanan's speech, denied Scott's petition in favor of his owner.

Personnel[edit]

Cabinet redeem apple store gift card administration[edit]

As his inauguration approached, Buchanan sought to establish an obedient, harmonious cabinet, to avoid the in-fighting that had plagued Andrew Jackson's administration. He chose four Southerners and three Northerners, the latter of whom were all considered to be doughfaces (Southern sympathizers). His objective was to dominate the cabinet, and he chose men who would agree with his views. Concentrating on foreign policy, he appointed the aging Lewis Cass as Secretary of State. Buchanan's appointment of Southerners and their allies alienated many in the North, and his failure to appoint any followers of Stephen A. Douglas divided the party. Outside of the cabinet, he left in place many of Pierce's appointments, but removed a disproportionate number of Bangor public library who members 1st federal credit union carlisle ties to Democrat opponents Pierce or Douglas. In that vein, he soon alienated their ally, and his vice president, Breckinridge; the latter therefore played little role in the administration.

Judicial appointments[edit]

Main article: List of federal judges appointed by James Buchanan

Buchanan appointed one Justice, Nathan Clifford, to the Supreme Court of the United States.[41] He appointed seven other federal judges to United States district courts. He also appointed two judges to the United States Court of Claims.[42]

Intervention in the Dred Scott case[edit]

Two days after Buchanan's inauguration, Chief Justice Taney delivered the Dred Scott decision, denying the enslaved petitioner's request for freedom. The ruling broadly asserted that Congress had no constitutional power to exclude slavery in the territories. Prior to his inauguration, Buchanan had written to Justice John Catron in January 1857, inquired about the outcome of the case, and suggested that a broader decision, beyond the specifics of the case, would be more prudent. Buchanan hoped that a broad decision protecting slavery in the territories could lay the issue to rest, allowing him to focus on other issues.

Catron, who was from Tennessee, replied on February 10, saying that the Supreme Court's Southern majority would decide against Scott, but would likely have to publish the decision on narrow grounds unless Buchanan could convince his fellow Pennsylvanian, Justice Robert Cooper Grier, to join the majority of the court. Buchanan then wrote to Grier and prevailed upon him, providing the majority leverage to issue a broad-ranging decision, sufficient to render the Missouri Compromise of 1820 unconstitutional. Buchanan's letters were not then public; he was, however, seen at his inauguration in whispered conversation with the Chief Justice. When the decision was issued, Republicans began spreading word that Taney had revealed to Buchanan the forthcoming result. Rather than destroying the Republican platform as Buchanan had hoped, the decision outraged Northerners who denounced it.

Panic of 1857[edit]

The Panic of 1857 began in the summer of that year, ushered in by the collapse of 1,400 state banks and 5,000 businesses. While the South escaped largely unscathed, numerous northern cities experienced drastic increases in unemployment. Buchanan agreed with the southerners who attributed the economic collapse to overspeculation.

Reflecting his Jacksonian background, Buchanan's response was "reform not relief". While the government was "without the power to extend relief," it would continue to pay its debts in specie, and while it would not curtail public works, none would be added. In hopes of reducing paper money supplies and inflation, he members 1st federal credit union carlisle the states to restrict the banks to a credit level of $3 to $1 of specie and discouraged the members 1st federal credit union carlisle of federal or state bonds as security for bank note issues. The economy recovered in several years, though many Americans suffered as a result of the panic. Buchanan had hoped to reduce the deficit, but by the time he left office the federal deficit stood at $17 million.

Utah War[edit]

Main articles: Utah War and Runaway Officials of 1851

The Utah territory, settled in preceding decades by the Latter-day Saints and their leader Brigham Young, had grown increasingly hostile to federal intervention. Young harassed federal officers and discouraged outsiders from primi pasta in the Salt Lake City area. In September 1857, the Utah Territorial Militia, associated with the Latter-day Saints, perpetrated the Mountain Meadows massacre against Arkansans headed for California. Buchanan was offended by the militarism and polygamous behavior of Young.

Believing the Latter-day Saints to be in open rebellion, Buchanan in July 1857 sent Alfred Cumming, accompanied by the Army, to replace Young as governor. While the Latter-day Saints had frequently defied federal authority, some historians consider Buchanan's action was an inappropriate response to uncorroborated reports. Complicating matters, Young's notice of his replacement was not delivered because the Pierce administration had annulled the Utah mail contract. Young reacted to the military action by mustering a two-week expedition, destroying wagon trains, oxen, and other Army property. Buchanan then dispatched Thomas L. Kane as a private agent to negotiate peace. The mission succeeded, the new governor took office, and the Utah War ended. The President granted amnesty to inhabitants affirming loyalty to the government, and placed the federal troops at a peaceable distance for the balance of his administration.

Bleeding Kansas[edit]

Main article: Bleeding Kansas

The balance of free and slave states and territories in 1858, after the admission of Minnesota

The Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854 created the Kansas Territory and allowed the settlers there to decide whether to allow slavery. This resulted in violence between "Free-Soil" (antislavery) and pro-slavery settlers, which developed into the "Bleeding Kansas" period. The antislavery settlers, with the help of Northern abolitionists, organized a government in Topeka. The more numerous proslavery settlers, many from the neighboring slave state Missouri, established a government in Lecompton, giving the Territory two different governments for a time, with two distinct constitutions, each claiming legitimacy.

The admission of Kansas as a state required a constitution be submitted to Congress with the approval of a majority of its residents. Under President Pierce, a series of violent confrontations escalated over who had the right to vote in Kansas. The situation drew national attention, and some in Georgia and Mississippi advocated secession should Kansas be admitted as a free state. Buchanan chose to endorse the pro-slavery Lecompton government.

Buchanan appointed Robert J. Walker to replace John W. Geary as Territorial Governor, with the expectation he would assist the proslavery faction in gaining approval of a new constitution. However, Walker wavered on the slavery question, and there ensued conflicting referendums from Topeka and Lecompton, where election fraud occurred. In October 1857, the Lecompton government framed the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution and sent it to Buchanan without a referendum. Buchanan reluctantly rejected it, and he dispatched federal agents to arrange a compromise. The Lecompton government agreed to a referendum limited solely to the slavery question.

Despite the protests of Walker and two former Kansas governors, Buchanan decided to accept the Lecompton Constitution. In a December 1857 meeting with Stephen Douglas, the chairman of the Senate Committee on Territories, Buchanan demanded that all Democrats support the administration's position of admitting Kansas under the Lecompton Constitution. On February 2, he transmitted the Lecompton Constitution to Congress. He also transmitted a message that attacked the "revolutionary government" in Topeka, conflating them with the Mormons in Utah. Buchanan made every effort to secure congressional approval, offering favors, patronage appointments, and even cash for votes. The Lecompton Constitution won the approval of the Senate in March, but a combination of Know-Nothings, Republicans, and northern Democrats defeated the bill in the House. Rather than accepting defeat, Buchanan backed the 1858 English Bill, which offered Kansans immediate statehood and vast public lands in exchange for accepting the Lecompton Constitution. In August 1858, Kansans by referendum strongly rejected the Lecompton Constitution.

The dispute over Kansas became the battlefront for control of the Democratic Party. On one side were Buchanan, most Southern Democrats, and the "doughfaces". On the other side were Douglas and most northern Democrats plus a few Southerners. Douglas's faction continued to support the doctrine of popular sovereignty, while Buchanan insisted that Democrats respect the Dred Scott decision and its repudiation of federal interference with slavery in the territories. The struggle ended only with Buchanan's presidency. In the interim he used his patronage powers to remove Douglas sympathizers in Illinois and Washington, D.C., and installed pro-administration Democrats, including postmasters.

1858 mid-term elections[edit]

Douglas's Senate term was coming to an end in 1859, with the Illinois legislature, elected in 1858, determining whether Douglas would win re-election. The Senate seat was the primary issue of the legislative election, marked by the famous debates between Douglas and his Republican opponent for the seat, Abraham Lincoln. Buchanan, working through federal patronage appointees in Illinois, ran candidates for the legislature in competition with both the Republicans and the Douglas Democrats. This could easily have thrown the election to the Republicans, and showed the depth of Buchanan's animosity toward Douglas. In the end, Douglas Democrats won the legislative election and Douglas was re-elected to the Senate. In that year's elections, Douglas forces took control throughout the North, except in Buchanan's home state of Pennsylvania. Buchanan's support was otherwise reduced to a narrow base of southerners.

The division between northern and southern Democrats allowed the Republicans to win a plurality of the House in the 1858 elections, and allowed them to block most of Buchanan's agenda. Buchanan, in turn, added to the hostility with his veto of six substantial pieces of Republican legislation. Among these measures were the Homestead Act, which would have given 160 acres of public land to settlers who remained on the land for five years, and the Morrill Act, which would have granted public lands walmart money card account login establish land-grant colleges. Buchanan argued that these acts were unconstitutional.

Foreign policy[edit]

Buchanan took office with an ambitious foreign policy, designed to establish U.S. hegemony over Central America at the expense of Great Britain. He hoped to re-negotiate the Clayton–Bulwer Treaty, which he thought limited U.S. influence in the region. He also sought to establish American protectorates over the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora, and most importantly, he hoped to achieve his long-term goal of acquiring Cuba. After long negotiations with the British, he convinced them to cede the Bay Islands to Honduras and the Mosquito Coast to Nicaragua. However, Buchanan's ambitions in Cuba and Mexico were largely blocked by the Members 1st federal credit union carlisle of Representatives.

Buchanan also considered buying Alaska from the Russian Empire, as a colony for Mormon settlers, but he and the Russians were unable to agree upon a price. In China, the administration won trade concessions in the Treaty of Tientsin. In 1858, Buchanan ordered the Paraguay expedition to punish Paraguay for firing on the USS Water Witch, and the expedition resulted in a Paraguayan apology and payment of an indemnity. The chiefs of Raiatea and Tahaa in the South Pacific, refusing to accept the rule of King Tamatoa V, unsuccessfully petitioned the United States to accept the islands under a protectorate in June 1858.

Buchanan was offered a herd of elephants by King Rama IV of Siam, though the letter arrived after Buchanan's departure from office. As Buchanan's successor, Lincoln declined the King's offer, citing the unsuitable climate.[68] Other presidential pets included a pair of bald eagles and a Newfoundland dog.[69]

Covode Committee[edit]

In March 1860, the House impaneled the Covode Committee to investigate the administration for alleged impeachable offenses, such as bribery and extortion of representatives. The committee, three Republicans and two Democrats, was accused by Buchanan's supporters of being nakedly partisan; they charged its chairman, Republican Rep. John Covode, with acting on a personal grudge from a disputed land grant designed to benefit Covode's railroad company. The Democratic committee members, as well as Democratic witnesses, were enthusiastic in their condemnation of Buchanan.

The committee was unable to establish grounds for impeaching Buchanan; however, the majority report issued on June 17 alleged corruption and abuse of power among members of his cabinet. The report also included accusations from Republicans that Buchanan had attempted to bribe members of Congress, in connection with the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution of Kansas. The Democrats pointed out that evidence was scarce, but did not refute the allegations; one of the Democratic members, Rep. James Robinson, stated that he agreed with the Republicans, though he did not sign it.

Buchanan claimed to have "passed triumphantly through this ordeal" with complete vindication. Republican operatives distributed thousands of copies of the Covode Committee report throughout the nation as campaign material in that year's presidential election.

Election of 1860[edit]

Main article: 1860 United States presidential election

As he had promised in his inaugural address, Buchanan did not seek re-election. He went so far as to tell his ultimate successor, “If you are as happy in entering the White House as I shall feel on returning to Wheatland [his estate near Lancaster, Pennsylvania], you are a happy man.”

The 1860 Democratic National Convention convened in April of that year and, though Douglas led after every ballot, he was unable to win the two-thirds majority required. The convention adjourned after 53 ballots, and re-convened in Baltimore in June. After Douglas finally won the nomination, several Southerners refused to accept the outcome, and nominated Vice President Breckinridge as their own candidate. Douglas and Breckinridge agreed on most issues except the protection of slavery. Buchanan, nursing a grudge against Douglas, failed to reconcile the party, and tepidly supported Breckinridge. With the splintering of the Democratic Party, Republican nominee Abraham Lincoln won a four-way election that also included John Bell of the Constitutional Union Party. Lincoln's support in the North was enough to give him an Electoral College majority. Buchanan became the last Democrat to win a presidential election until Grover Cleveland in 1884.

As early as October, the army's Commanding General, Winfield Scott, an opponent of Buchanan, warned him that Lincoln's election would likely cause at least seven states to secede from the union. He recommended that massive amounts of federal troops and artillery be deployed to those states to protect federal property, although he also warned that few reinforcements were available. Since 1857 Congress had failed to heed calls for a stronger militia and allowed the army to fall into deplorable condition. Buchanan distrusted Scott and ignored his recommendations. After Lincoln's election, Buchanan directed War Secretary Floyd to reinforce southern forts with such provisions, arms, and men as were available; however, Floyd persuaded him to revoke the order.

Secession[edit]

With Lincoln's victory, talk of secession and disunion reached smith and wesson m&p 40 accessories boiling point, putting what is the atm deposit limit for bank of america burden on Buchanan to address it in his final speech to Congress on December 10. In his message, which was anticipated by both factions, Buchanan denied the right of states to secede but maintained the federal government was without power to prevent them. He placed the blame for the crisis solely on "intemperate interference of the Northern people with the question of slavery in the Southern States," and suggested that if they did not "repeal their unconstitutional and obnoxious enactments . the injured States, after having first used all peaceful and constitutional means to obtain redress, would be justified in revolutionary resistance to the Government of the Union."[79][80] Buchanan's only suggestion to solve the crisis was "an explanatory amendment" affirming the constitutionality of slavery in the states, the fugitive slave laws, and popular sovereignty in the territories.[79] His address was sharply criticized both by the North, for its refusal to stop secession, and the South, for denying its right to secede. Five days after the address was delivered, Treasury Secretary Howell Cobb resigned, as his views had become irreconcilable with the President's.[82]

Map of U.S. showing two kinds of Union states, two phases of secession and territories

Status of the states, 1861

   States that seceded before April 15, 1861

   States that seceded after April 15, 1861

   Union states that permitted slavery

   Union states that banned slavery

   Territories

South Carolina, long the most radical Southern state, seceded from the Union on December 20, 1860. However, Unionist sentiment remained strong among many in the South, and Buchanan sought to appeal to the Southern moderates who might prevent secession in other states. He proposed passage of constitutional amendments protecting slavery in the states and territories. He also met with South Carolinian commissioners in an attempt to resolve the situation at Fort Sumter, which federal forces remained in control of despite its location in Charleston, South Carolina. He refused to dismiss Interior Secretary Jacob Thompson after the latter was chosen as Mississippi's agent to discuss secession, and he refused to fire Secretary of War John B. Floyd despite an embezzlement scandal. Floyd ended up resigning, but not before sending numerous firearms to Southern states, where they eventually fell into the hands of the Confederacy. Despite Floyd's resignation, Buchanan continued to seek the advice of counselors from the Deep South, including Jefferson Davis and William Henry Trescot.

Efforts were made in vain by Sen. John J. Crittenden, Rep. Is grated parmesan cheese bad for you Corwin, and former president John Tyler to negotiate a compromise to stop secession, with Buchanan's support. Failed attempts were also made by a group of governors meeting in New York. Buchanan secretly asked President-elect Lincoln to call for a national referendum on the issue of slavery, but Lincoln declined.

Despite the efforts of Buchanan and others, six more slave states seceded by the end of January 1861. Buchanan replaced the departed Southern cabinet members with John Adams Dix, Edwin M. Stanton, and Joseph Holt, all of whom were committed to preserving the Union. When Buchanan considered surrendering Fort Sumter, the new cabinet members threatened to resign, and Buchanan relented. On January 5, Buchanan decided to reinforce Fort Sumter, sending the Star of the West with 250 men and supplies. However, he failed to ask Major Robert Anderson to provide covering fire for the ship, and it was forced to return North without delivering troops or supplies. Buchanan chose not to respond to this act of war, and instead sought to find a compromise to avoid secession. He received a March 3 message from Anderson, that supplies were running low, but the response became Lincoln's to make, as the latter succeeded to the presidency the next day.

Proposed constitutional amendment[edit]

On March 2, 1861, Congress approved an amendment to the United States Constitution that would shield "domestic institutions" of the states, including slavery, from the constitutional amendment process and from abolition or interference by Congress. The proposed amendment was submitted to the state legislatures for ratification. Commonly known as the Corwin Amendment, it was never ratified by the requisite number of states.

States admitted to the Union[edit]

Three new states were admitted to the Union while Buchanan was in office:

Final years (1861–1868)[edit]

Buchanan in his later years. c. mid-1860s

The Civil War erupted within two months of Buchanan's retirement. He supported the Union, writing to former colleagues that, "the assault upon Sumter was the commencement of war by the Confederate states, and no alternative was left but to prosecute it with vigor on our part."[88] He also wrote a letter to his fellow Pennsylvania Democrats, urging them to "join the many thousands of brave & patriotic volunteers who are already in the field."[88]

Buchanan was dedicated to defending his actions prior to the Civil War, which was referred to by some as "Buchanan's War".[88] He received threatening letters daily, and stores displayed Buchanan's likeness with the eyes inked red, a noose drawn around his neck and the word "TRAITOR" written across his forehead. The Senate proposed a resolution of condemnation which ultimately failed, and newspapers accused him of colluding with the Confederacy. His former cabinet members, five of whom had been given jobs in the Lincoln administration, refused to defend Buchanan publicly.

Buchanan became distraught by the vitriolic attacks levied against him, and fell sick and depressed. In October 1862, he defended himself in an exchange of letters with Winfield Scott, published in the National Intelligencer. He soon began writing his fullest public defense, in the form of his memoir Mr. Buchanan's Administration on the Eve of Rebellion, which was published in 1866.

Soon after the publication of the memoir, Buchanan caught a cold in May 1868, which quickly worsened due to his advanced age. He died on June 1, 1868, of respiratory failure at the age of 77 at his home at Wheatland. He was interred in Woodward Hill Cemetery in Lancaster.

Political views[edit]

Buchanan was often considered by anti-slavery northerners a "doughface", a northern man with pro-southern principles. Shortly after his election, he said that the "great object" of his administration was "to arrest, if possible, the agitation of the Slavery question in the North and to destroy sectional parties". Buchanan believed the abolitionists were preventing the solution to the slavery problem. He stated, "Before [the abolitionists] commenced this agitation, a very large and growing party existed in several of the slave states in favor of the gradual abolition of slavery; and now not a voice is heard there in support of such a measure. The abolitionists have postponed the emancipation of the slaves in three or four states for at least half a century." In deference to the intentions of the typical slaveholder, he was willing to provide the benefit of the doubt. In his third annual message to Congress, the president claimed that the slaves were "treated with kindness and humanity. . Both the philanthropy and the self-interest of the master have combined to produce this humane result."[94]

Buchanan thought restraint was the essence of good self-government. He believed the constitution comprised ". restraints, imposed not by arbitrary authority, but by the people upon themselves and their representatives. . In members 1st federal credit union carlisle enlarged view, the people's interests may seem identical, but to the eye of local and sectional prejudice, they always appear to be conflicting . and the jealousies that will perpetually arise can be repressed only by the mutual forbearance which pervades the constitution." Regarding slavery and the Constitution, he indian home remedies for gout "Although in Pennsylvania we are all opposed to slavery in the abstract, we can never violate the constitutional compact we have with our sister states. Their rights will be held sacred by us. Under the constitution it is their own question; and there let it remain."

One of the prominent issues of the day was tariffs. Buchanan was conflicted by free trade as well as prohibitive tariffs, since either would benefit one section of the country to the detriment of the other. As a senator from Pennsylvania, he said: "I am viewed as the strongest advocate of protection in other states, whilst I am denounced as its enemy in Pennsylvania."

Buchanan was also torn between his desire to expand the country for the general welfare of the nation, and to guarantee the rights of the people settling particular areas. On territorial expansion, he said, "What, sir? Prevent the people from crossing the Rocky Mountains? You might just as well command the Niagara not to flow. We must fulfill our destiny." On the resulting spread of slavery, through unconditional expansion, he stated: "I feel a strong repugnance by any act of mine to extend the present limits of the Union over a new slave-holding territory." For instance, he hoped the acquisition of Texas would "be the means of limiting, not enlarging, the dominion of slavery."

Romantic life[edit]

In 1818, Buchanan met Anne Caroline Coleman at a grand ball in Lancaster, and the two began courting. Anne was the daughter of wealthy iron manufacturer Robert Coleman. She was also the sister-in-law of Philadelphia judge Joseph Hemphill, one of Buchanan's colleagues. By 1819, the two were engaged, but spent little time together. Buchanan was busy with his law uk phone country code from usa and political projects during the Panic of 1819, which took him away from Coleman for weeks at a time. Rumors abounded, as some suggested that he was marrying her only for money; others said he was involved with other (unidentified) women. Letters from Coleman revealed she was aware of several rumors.[99] She broke off the engagement, and soon afterward, on December 9, 1819, suddenly died. Buchanan wrote to her father for permission to attend the funeral, which was refused.[101]

After Coleman's death, Buchanan never courted another woman. At the time of her funeral, he said that, "I feel happiness has fled from me forever."[102] During his presidency, an orphaned niece, Harriet Lane, whom he had adopted, served as official White House hostess.[103] There was an unfounded rumor that he had an affair with President Polk's widow, Sarah Childress Polk.[104]

Buchanan's lifelong bachelorhood after Anne Coleman's death has drawn interest and speculation. Some conjecture that Anne's death merely served to deflect questions about Buchanan's sexuality and bachelorhood.[102] Several writers have surmised that he was homosexual, including James W. Loewen,[106] Robert P. Watson, and Shelley Ross. One of his biographers, Jean Baker, suggests that Buchanan was celibate, if not asexual.

Buchanan had a close relationship with William Rufus King, which became a popular target of gossip. King was an Alabama politician who briefly served as vice president under Franklin Pierce. Buchanan and King lived together in a Washington boardinghouse and attended social functions together from 1834 until 1844. Such a living arrangement was then common, though King once referred to the relationship as a "communion".[104] Andrew Jackson called King "Miss Nancy" and Buchanan's Postmaster General Aaron V. Brown referred to King as Buchanan's "better half", "wife", and "Aunt Fancy".[110][111] Loewen indicated that Buchanan late in life wrote a letter acknowledging that he might marry a woman who could accept his "lack of ardent or romantic affection".[113][114] Catherine Thompson, the wife of cabinet member Jacob Thompson, later noted that "there was something unhealthy in the president's attitude."[104] King died of tuberculosis shortly after Pierce's inauguration, four years before Buchanan became president. Buchanan described him as "among the best, the purest and most consistent public men I have known".[104] Biographer Baker opines that both men's nieces may have destroyed correspondence between the two men. However, she believes that their surviving letters illustrate only members 1st federal credit union carlisle affection of a special friendship".

Legacy[edit]

Historical reputation[edit]

Though Buchanan predicted that "history will vindicate my memory,"[115] historians have criticized Buchanan for his unwillingness or inability to act in the face of secession. Historical rankings of presidents of the Bremen indiana flooding States without exception place Buchanan among the least successful presidents. When scholars are surveyed, he ranks at or near the bottom in terms of vision/agenda-setting, domestic leadership, foreign policy leadership, moral authority, and positive historical significance of their legacy.[116]

Buchanan biographer Philip Klein focuses upon challenges Buchanan faced:

Buchanan assumed leadership . when an unprecedented wave of angry passion was sweeping over the nation. That he held the hostile sections in check during these revolutionary times was in itself a remarkable achievement. His weaknesses in the stormy years of his presidency were magnified by enraged partisans of the North and South. His many talents, which in a quieter era might have gained for him a place among the great presidents, were quickly overshadowed by the cataclysmic events of civil war and by the towering Abraham Lincoln.

Biographer Jean Baker is less charitable to Buchanan, saying in 2004:

Americans have conveniently misled themselves about the presidency of James Buchanan, preferring to classify him as indecisive and inactive . In fact Buchanan's failing during the crisis over the Union was not inactivity, but rather his partiality for the South, a favoritism that bordered on disloyalty in an officer pledged to defend all the United States. He was that most dangerous of chief executives, a stubborn, mistaken ideologue whose principles held no room for compromise. His experience in government had only rendered him too self-confident to consider other views. In his betrayal of the national trust, Buchanan came closer to committing treason than any other president in American history.

Memorials[edit]

A bronze and granite memorial near the southeast corner of Washington, D.C.'s Meridian Hill Park was designed by architect William Gorden Beecher and sculpted by Maryland artist Hans Schuler. It was commissioned in 1916 but not approved by the U.S. Congress until 1918, and not completed and unveiled until June 26, 1930. The memorial features a statue of Buchanan, bookended by male and female classical figures representing law and diplomacy, with engraved text reading: "The incorruptible statesman whose walk was upon the mountain ranges of the law," a quote from a member of Buchanan's cabinet, Jeremiah S. Black.

Buchanan memorial, Washington, D.C.

An earlier monument was constructed in 1907–08 and dedicated in 1911, on the site of Buchanan's birthplace in Stony Batter, Pennsylvania. Part of the original 18.5-acre (75,000 m2) memorial site is a 250-ton pyramid structure that stands on the site of the original cabin where Buchanan was born. The monument was designed to show the original weathered surface of the native rubble and mortar.[120]

Three counties are named in his honor, in Iowa, Missouri, and Virginia. Another in Texas was christened in 1858 but renamed Stephens County, after the newly elected Vice President of the Confederate States of America, Alexander Stephens, in 1861. The city of Buchanan, Michigan, was also named after him.[122] Several other communities are named after him: the unincorporated community of Buchanan, Indiana, the city of Buchanan, Georgia, the town of Buchanan, Wisconsin, and the townships of Buchanan Township, Michigan, and Buchanan, Missouri.

James Buchanan High School is a small, rural high school located on the outskirts of his childhood hometown, Mercersburg, Pennsylvania.

Popular culture depictions[edit]

Buchanan and his legacy are central to the film Raising Buchanan (2019). He is portrayed by René Auberjonois.[123]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Ellis, Franklin; Evans, Samuel (1883). History of Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. 1. Philadelphia: Everts & Peck. p. 214.
  2. ^Curtis, George Ticknor (1883). Life of James Buchanan, Fifteenth President members 1st federal credit union carlisle the United States. 1. New York: Harper & Brothers. p. 10. ISBN .
  3. ^"American Philosophical Society Member History". American Philosophical Society. Retrieved April 12, 2021.
  4. ^"Buchanan Family 1430 – 1903". ancestry.com. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
  5. ^Montgomery, Thomas Lynch (1907). Pennsylvania Archives: Sixth Series. VII. Harrisburg, PA: Harrisburg Publishing Company. p. 906.
  6. ^O'Brien, Marco. "Military trivia facts". Military.com. Military Advantage, a division of Monster Worldwide. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
  7. ^Secretary of the United States Senate. "Gag rule". United States Senate. Retrieved January 25, 2020.
  8. ^"Nathan Clifford, 1858–1881". supremecourthistory.org. The Supreme Court Historical Society. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  9. ^"Judges of the United States Courts". Biographical Directory of Federal Judges. Federal Judicial Center. Retrieved May 30, 2020.
  10. ^"Lincoln Rejects the King of Siam's Offer of Elephants". American Battlefield Trust. Retrieved July 19, 2021.
  11. ^"Top Ten Strangest Presidential Pets". PetMD. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
  12. ^ abBuchanan (1860)
  13. ^"James Buchanan, Fourth Annual Message to Congress on the State of the Union, December 3, 1860". The American Presidency Project. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
  14. ^"The Resignation of Secretary Cobb. The Correspondence". The New York Times. December 14, 1860.
  15. ^"Today in History: May 11". loc.gov. Library of Congress.
  16. ^"Oregon". A+E Networks Corp. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
  17. ^ abcBirkner, Michael (September 20, 2005). "Buchanan's Civil War". Archived from the original on October 19, 2011. Retrieved December 22, 2013.
  18. ^"Third Annual Message (December 19, 1859)". The Miller Center at the University of Virginia. Archived from the original on January 6, 2012. Retrieved April 28, 2012.
  19. ^Boertlein, John (2010). Presidential Confidential: Sex, Scandal, Murder and Mayhem in the Oval Office. Cincinnati, Ohio: Clerisy Press. p. 101. ISBN .
  20. ^Sandburg, Carl (1939). Abraham Lincoln: The War Years. 1. New York City: Harcourt, Brace & Company. p. 22. ISBN .
  21. ^ abDunn, Charles (1999). The Scarlet Thread of Scandal: Morality and the American Presidency. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.ISBN .
  22. ^"Harriet Lane". whitehouse.gov. Retrieved May 11, 2013 – via National Archives.
  23. ^ abcdWatson 2012, p. 247
  24. ^Loewen, James W. (1999). Lies across America: What our Historic Sites get Wrong. New York City: The New Press. pp. 367–9. ISBN .
  25. ^The Wordsworth Book of Euphemisms by Judith S. Neaman and Carole G. Silver (Wordsworth Editions Ltd., Hertfordshire)
  26. ^Loewen 1999 p. 367
  27. ^Loewen 1999 pp. 367–370
  28. ^Loewen, James (2009). Lies Across America. New York, Members 1st federal credit union carlisle Simon & Schuster. pp. 342–45.
  29. ^"Buchanan's Birthplace State Park". Pennsylvania State Parks. Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. Retrieved March 28, 2009.
  30. ^"The top US presidents: First poll of UK experts". BBC News. January 17, 2011.
  31. ^"Buchanan's Birthplace State Park". Retrieved June 4, 2012.
  32. ^Hoogterp, Edward (2006). West Michigan Almanac, p. 168. The University of Michigan Press & The Petoskey Publishing Company.
  33. ^"Raising Buchanan on IMDB". IMDb. April 12, 2019.

Works cited[edit]

  • Armitage, Susan H.; Faragher, John Mack; Buhle, Mari Jo; Czitrom, Daniel J. (2005). Out of Many, TLC Combined, Revised Printing (4th ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN .
  • Baker, Jean H. (2004). James Buchanan. Times Books. ISBN .excerpt and text search
  • Beatty, Michael A. (2001). County Name Origins of the United States. McFarland. ISBN .
  • Chadwick, Bruce (2008). 1858: Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, Ulysses S. Grant and the War They Failed to See. Sourcebooks, Inc. ISBN .
  • Curtis, George Ticknor (1883). Life of James Buchanan: Fifteenth President of the United States. 2. Harper & Brothers. ISBN .
  • Flude, Anthony G. (March 2012). "Manuscript XXIII: A Raiatean Petition for American Protection". The Journal of Pacific History. Canberra: Australian National University. 47 (1): 111–121. doi:10.1080/00223344.2011.632982. OCLC 785915823. S2CID 159847026.
Источник: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Buchanan

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North Middleton Branch1711 Spring RdCarlislePA17013(717) 258-5504Monday: 9 am to 5 pm
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Thursday: 9 am to 5 pmn/an/aWalnut Bottom Branch1166 Walnut Bottom RdCarlislePA17015-9160(717) 249-4666Monday: 9 am to 5 pm
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Thursday: 9 am to 7 pmn/an/aWest High Street Branch814 W High StCarlislePA17013-2706(717) 254-1113Monday thru Thursday: 9 am to 5 pm
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The citizens bank morehead routing number



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Previously, you used a User ID and Password to login to your account information. Routing Number NY: 021313103. 011000015 The routing number for First Citizens Community Bank is 031309589. Search For bank names on FindRoutingnumbers. Business Checking Accounts Obtaining the best rate also requires the following criteria to be met: 1) A new home equity line of credit application, 2) A line amount of $200,000 or more, 3) Line must be in first lien position, 4) Having a Citizens Bank consumer checking account, set up with automatic monthly payment deduction at the time of origination, 5) A loan-to-value (LTV) of 80% or less (85% or less in Michigan Jan 11, 2016 · The Routing Number is used for domestic transfer. Evanston, Illinois 60201. FIRST CITIZENS BANK AND TRUST CO. Select the state where you opened your account to see your routing number needed for different transaction types. We offer full-service banking with the goal to help members build a better financial future and we’ve been doing that since 1978! Routing Number: Customer Name: FIRST-CITIZENS BANK & TRUST CO: SOUND BANK: 5039 EXECUTIVE DRIVE: MOREHEAD CITY: NC: 28557-0000 (252)727-5558 Citizens Bank is a real community bank. Chartered By: STATE. When initiating a wire transfer online, the deadline is 5:00 PM (Eastern time). No THE CITIZENS BANK: KY: MOREHEAD: P O BOX 1026: 042107673: 299: The Routing Number is used for domestic transfer. Copy to Clipboard. To set up an incoming wire transfer, you’ll need Businesses today need a wide variety of financial services. In Rhode Island, the ACH routing number is the same, also being 011500120. Routing Number. Citizens Bank has only one routing number that you’ll need to use: 314089681, so if you’re a Citizens Bank customer or are transferring money Click on the routing number to find out the bank details, address, telephone number and maps. Here you can find your Citizens National Bank Routing Number. – 6:00 p. To make money transfer, the Routing Number is used together with the bank account number of the recipient. SWIFT code. Funds deposited with us stay local and help the community grow. Bank location where your account was opened. Now for all of you Citizens Bank account holder from New York, this is your turn, the following are your routing number. Opening Deposit Min. Address : 301 SOUTH EDWARDS ST, ENTERPRISE, AL 36330-0000. 1 Citizens Drive Rop440. Routing Numbers; About us; Subscribe; Search Menu Citizens Bank, The: Morehead, KY: 559614 Citizens Bank & Trust Company Of Vivian, Louisiana Oct 01, 2021 · First Citizens’s routing number for all wire transfers is 053100300. Main office. CITIZENS BANK NA. (800) 321-3373. This 9-digit code is used for multiple purposes such as fund transfers, direct deposits, bill payments, and digital checks. From sports to pets, nature to patriotic, you will find a debit card design that compliments your character. We have instant issue debit cards with many designs to fit you. TD’s institution number is 004. YourCitizens National Bank Routing Number is 111903151. check. Your routing number and account number can be found at the bottom of your checks. 406. Bank Code Name. Apr 29, 2021 · The ACH routing number for Citizens Bank is 241070417. 65403150. 3 comments: Nov 29, 2021 · A routing number is a 9-digit number used by U. THE CITIZENS BANK routing numbers list. For faster service, call us at 678. Also, note that the date of the last change to CRF information in our database is 09 July 2018, and we want to advise you that before making any electronic transaction, please Those include the following: • Customers are able to perform most banking transactions at our drive-thru service. tcbanytime. THE CITIZENS BANK routing numbers have a nine-digit numeric code printed on the bottom of checks which is used for electronic routing of funds (ACH transfer) from one bank account to another. You can use the third and fourth digits of your account number to determine your routing number. Go paperless today! P2P Payments. Now offering P2P Payments with our Mobile App. For example, banks like Wells Fargo and Citibank have different routing numbers for different states and for functionality. m. Visit with Kristletoe the Elf and Santa. Check or statement - Citizens Bank-issued check or bank statement. We are a bank that is in-state and in-touch with the lives of our local community. Select Bank Federal Credit Union (Afcu) Academic Federal Credit Union 1199 Seiu Federal Credit Union 121 Financial Credit Union 167th Tfr Federal Credit Union 1880 Bank 1st Community Credit Union 1st Advantage Bank 1st Apr 11, 2019 · Comerica Bank will then notify the Social Security Administration that you have a Direct Express account and your benefits will automatically be loaded to the account moving forward. When one uses these modes of electronic transactions, then the Citizens Bank will prompt you the Citizens Bank routing number. 031309589. Routing numbers are used to know where a transaction or deposit comes from. It is still found on checks and is also used in wire transfers, bill payments and direct Obtaining the best rate also requires the following criteria to be met: 1) A new home equity line of credit application, 2) A line amount of $200,000 or more, 3) Line must be in first lien position, 4) Having a Citizens Bank consumer checking account, set up with automatic monthly payment deduction at the time of origination, 5) A loan-to-value (LTV) of 80% or less (85% or less in Michigan Your bank routing number is a nine-digit code that's based on the U. City/State: Raleigh, North Carolina. Information needed for incoming wires and routing number. CITIZENS BANK Routing Number : 011500120. A Lane Guide Company Find By Name. 11401533. and each of its respective affiliates. The following routing numbers correspond to electronic payments such as direct deposits and ACH payments. Account Number. FCBTUS33XXX. 100 EAST TRYON ROAD, INTERNATIONAL BANKING SERVICES. Riverside. A bank's Routing Transit Number (RTN) is a 9-digit code used to identify your bank on checks, direct deposit, bill pay, and in other transactions. Bank Routing Number. Here are some of the ways to find your number online: On this page - We've listed the Citizens Bank routing number for checking accounts and wire transfers. Sep 20, 2021 · The routing number and your personal account number can both be found on the bottom of the checks issued by your bank. Further Credit To: Customer Name. 123 is three digits code identifying the institution. ABA Routing Number: 053100300. However, the bank has different routing numbers depending on where you opened your account and what action you’re trying to complete. Morehead Community FCU details below updated September 2021 from quarterly data ending June 30, 2021. Previous Routing Number. There are 9 active routing numbers for THE CITIZENS BANK. We currently do not have a routing number for The Citizens Bank in our database. Servicing FRB Number. Incoming wire transfers require the following information: Bank name: First Citizens Bank. Aug 31, 2020 · If the first two numbers of a routing number are 00, that means the routing number is for a check or draft from the U. The ACH number and your bank account number are used by banks and transfer apps like Zelle or Cash App to identify the exact account payments should be taken from and sent to. Current Routing Number. The institution number represents the bank that your account is with, and it’s always 3 digits long. Lost/Stolen Cards. Saturday, December 11. A routing number is a nine-digit numeric code printed on the bottom of checks that is used to facilitate the electronic routing of funds (ACH transfer) from one bank account to another. Your routing number is the nine-digit code on the bottom left of your checks, per the visual below. From now on, you will also use a personalized image. This includes deposits, withdrawals, loan payments, account balance and information inquiries. The bank routing for Citizens Bank CT is 211170114. 211474661. Since the FDIC was established in 1933, no depositor has lost one penny of FDIC-insured accounts. 5151 S 4th St. CITIZENS BANK & TRUST. Electronic Transfer (ACH): 021313103. 062206431. . For international inward money transfer, a SWIFT code must be used together with a Routing Number and Account Number. Bank Name: Citizens Bank. When you combine them, the branch number and institution number make up your account’s routing number. Sometimes, banks have multiple routing numbers for different branches or uses. Nov 06, 2018 · What is the Routing Number for Citizens Bank CT. A. Whether you run a small 1-2 person start up shop, or enlist the help of multiple employees, Citizens Bank has a business account to fit your particular needs. Routing Numbers; About us; Subscribe; Search Menu Citizens Bank, The: Morehead, KY: 559614 Citizens Bank & Trust Company Of Vivian, Louisiana The Citizens Bank: Bank Routing Number: 42107673: Bank City: Morehead: Bank State: KY: Open PDF File - Learn how to open Portable Document Format File, Jun 01, 2020 · A routing number is a nine-digit number that allows a check or wired payment to be sent to the correct bank or credit union. For additional details regarding the application process, contact: Routing Number Registrar. The routing number for Citizens Bank in Mississippi is used on Citizens Bank checks and for direct deposits and wire transfers. Routing numbers are essential to the correct ABA Bank Routing Number Lookup. MultiKey is made up of four parts: User A relationship you can bank on: Thank you for your support. Citizens Bank & Trust's routing number is 062206431. Routing Numbers; About us; Subscribe; Search Menu Citizens Bank, The: Morehead, KY: 559614 Citizens Bank & Trust Company Of Vivian, Louisiana CITIZENS BANK, RIVERSIDE Electronic Routing Number - 036076150 A routing number 036076150 is used to identify a monetary foundation in the CITIZENS BANK, RIVERSIDE, US. 211170114. Office Code (O=Main B=Branch) O. (847) 933-8040 fax. " Sep 23, 2021 · Citizens National Bank has 27 locations in Mississippi to serve you! 512 22nd Avenue, Meridian, MS 39301. Bank City. Routing numbers are unique identifiers which show the bank location where you opened your account. Details of Routing Number # 062105710. Wire transfers made outside of the United States to a USA Citizens Bank account have a routing number found in the table listed at the beginning of this article. Opinion for Citizens Bank of Morehead v. City. The first number on the bottom left-hand side of your checks is your routing number, which will direct deposits to your bank. The bank sold its 94 branches to the U. Posted by Admin at 6:51 PM. Was your card lost and/or stolen? Find out how to replace it. So, bundle up and come to CFB. Call (423) 272-2200 for wire instructions for domestic wire transfer to and from The Citizens Bank Of East Tennessee, international wire transfer, wire transfer fees and cut off time for wires. com for more information and online banking service if available. Outdoor event, weather permitting. State. Bank Name. 2d 730, 287 Ky. Routing number : 061212057, Institution Name : THE CITIZENS BANK, Delivery Address : 301 SOUTH DAVIS STREET,NASHVILLE, GA - 31639, Telephone : 229-686-7444 Citizens Bank of Mississippi - Routing Number. You will need following information to transfer the fund from your CITIZENS BANK account to any other financial institution within US. The SWIFT code for Citizens Bank is CTZIUS33. This SWIFT code is for the FIRST CITIZENS BANK AND TRUST CO. You can also find it in the U. 65304385. Cheque, bank statement or deposit slip – bank-issued cheque or bank statement. Routing numbers are often referred to as check routing numbers, ABA numbers or routing numbers (RTN). To find routing number of a bank, kindly select the bank, state, city and branch location. 4000 during normal business hours M-F 8:30 a. S. Find Us. Routing numbers may vary by the location where your account was opened and the type of transaction made. Balance to Earn APY Effective Date Interest Rate APY; Regular Savings: $25: $0 - $14,999 $15,000 - $49,999 eStatements. The Citizens Bank's routing number (the leftmost number on the bottom of a check) is 42107673. Online banking – You’ll be able to get your account, institution, and transit number by logging into online banking. He currently serves as President of Citizens Union Bank. We offer full-service banking with the goal to help members build a better financial future and we’ve been doing that since 1978! Citizens is a brand name of Citizens Bank, N. • If you are making a deposit, you may do so at the drive-thru or you can bypass the drive-thru and place your deposit in the Night Oct 23, 2021 · Citizens Bank New York. 70 Carlisle Road. Swift code (8 characters) FCBTUS33. For example, the routing number for the TD branch located at 15 York St. He previously served as Chairman and CEO of First Farmers Bank located in Owenton, KY. Citizens is a brand name of Citizens Bank, N. Routing number 042107673 is assigned to THE CITIZENS BANK located in MOREHEAD, KY. The second part of the numerator represents the American Bankers Association institution identifier, and the denominator is the Federal Reserve routing symbol. Local decision-making, lending flexibility and expertise – the right combination to building personal and business wealth for generations. The SWIFT code for wire transfers made outside of the United States is CTZIUS33. Hunt, 154 S. W. 10am – 12pm. The standard insurance amount is $250,000 per depositor, per insured bank, for each account ownership category. Bank : THE CITIZENS BANK . domestic wire transfer from CITIZENS BANK. Apr 09, 2020 · The first part of the hyphenated numerator in a bank fractional routing number stands for the city/state, notes BankersOnline. Short for Automatic Clearing House, ACH numbers are unique to each bank in the US. Dec 27, 2018 · Citizens National Bank is a bank headquartered in Texas. First Citizens Bank Routing Number. Dec 22, 2020 · The purpose of routing numbers is to keep track of where checks are coming from and where they are going to so that the bank knows how much money it is losing and how much it should be gaining in order to make sure that interest is paid on its loans and other funds. While sending a domestic ACH transfer in a Citizens Bank account, you will need to use the ACH routing number, which differs from state to state. Darryl is a graduate of Morehead State University with a BA in Finance. Telephone Number (800) 883-4224. See us to find the design that fits you. You can find your routing number by looking at your Citizens Bank checks. CITIZENS BANK routing numbers have a nine-digit numeric code printed on the bottom of checks which is used for electronic routing of funds (ACH transfer) from one bank account to another. 211070175. In the example, you would use 34 to determine your routing number using the chart below. 71000301. financial institutions to identify the specific financial institution tied to a bank transaction. Feb 10, 2014 · The Suntrust Bank is the bank that has the routing number 055002707. Zip. Our offices and staff all reside in rural Kentucky counties. Tell them your Christmas wishes and take a photo with Santa. Check Routing Numbers for all the banks and financial institutions in US. The Citizens Bank wire transfer routing number is 011500120 for any transfers inside of the United States. for the routing number, the first digit is the leading zero. It's the first set of numbers printed on the bottom of your checks, on the left side. You can visit the official website of the bank at https://www. Darryl has worked in the banking industry since 1983. "Amazing local bank with great rates and extremely supportive of the community. If your bank transit number is only four digits long, add a 0 in front of the number. Citizens National Bank has 27 locations in Mississippi to serve you! 512 22nd Avenue, Meridian, MS 39301. Office Code. You can get the citizens bank routing numbers are here. Note on Incoming Wire Transfers: Incoming wire transfers have a different routing number than the one displayed on your account. ET. Citizens is committed to ensuring that all interested candidates can successfully participate in our recruitment process. Most banks provide at least one free checkbook for new customers. The format of Routing Number, MICR Number is as follows:-Routing Number - 012345678 MICR Number - 45678-123. From first cars to meeting business goals, Citizens Trust Bank has proudly served businesses and community citizens since 1921. This routing number is used for ACH and wire money transfer from Citizens Bank Trust Plaquemine to other banks in United States of America. I FOUND THE ROUTING NUMBER ONLINE UNDER Oct 01, 2019 · Savings Accounts* Type of Deposit Min. ZIP. View Morehead Community FCU routing number, assets, charter number, members, loans and more. Bancorp, the U. This service will provide additional privacy and security of your personal information. 45678 is five digits code identifying the branch. Connecticut. Incoming wire: Citizens Federal Savings Bank. Aug 21, 2019 · The routing number 11401533 was issued by CITIZENS BANK NA in RIVERSIDE, Rhode Island (RI). Routing Numbers; About us; Subscribe; Search Menu Citizens Bank, The: Morehead, KY: 559614 Citizens Bank & Trust Company Of Vivian, Louisiana The Citizens Bank: Bank Routing Number: 42107673: Bank City: Morehead: Bank State: KY: Open PDF File - Learn how to open Portable Document Format File, The bank has multiple branches and therefore it would be best to know and confirm the First Citizens National Bank routing number before making any transaction. Nov 30, 2021 · Santa and His Sleigh are planning an extra stop this year! Citizens First Bank at 1442 Lincoln Way. Routing Number: 065300211. Member FDIC *Citizens Auto Advantage™ is currently being piloted in CT, MA and RI with additional markets to be added soon. followed by a couple real life examples. Sign Up Now Mar 11, 2005 · Citizens Bank A routing number is a nine digit code, used in the United States to identify the financial institution. The MultiKey login service is an easy way to help prevent identity theft and fraud. Leavenworth, KS 66048. in Toronto is 10152-004. For ordering checks, domestic wire transfers and direct deposit/ACH transactions, your C&F Bank routing number is 051404901. Example: Branch 1011 is 01011. No ID Name Address Established Service Type Map; 0: 6735: The Citizens Bank: 114 West Main Street, Morehead, KY 40351: September 28, 1928: Full Service Brick and Mortar A bank's Routing Transit Number (RTN) is a 9-digit code used to identify your bank on checks, direct deposit, bill pay, and in other transactions. FDIC Certificate: #324. Download Mobile App Farm Operating Lines of Credit: Nic Weers – 1-866-413-8155 Custom Built Mortgage Loans: Janet Sanborn (NMLS #452957) - 1-866-413-8155 Mary Achenbach (NMLS #452956) - 1-866-413-8155 The appropriate Citizens Trust Bank associate will contact you as soon as possible. Telephone : 334-347-3411. At Morehead Community Federal Credit Union our members are owners, joined by the belief that we are investing in each other. Routing Number Results are Updated Daily from the eRoutingNumber™ Database. 646 — Brought to you by Free Law Project, a non-profit dedicated to creating high quality open legal information. **The following states participate in the Electronic Lien and Title (ELT) program and will release your title: AZ, CA, CO, FL, GA, ID, KS, LA, MA, NC, NE, OH, PA, SC, SD May 15, 2014 · CITIZENS BANK Address : CITIZENS BANK, 1 CITIZENS DRIVE, RIVERSIDE, RHODE ISLAND - 02915. The FDIC manages the Deposit Insurance Fund to At Morehead Community Federal Credit Union our members are owners, joined by the belief that we are investing in each other. The first number is the routing number and the second is your unique account number. First Citizens Financial Corporation. There are 36 active routing numbers for CITIZENS BANK. It aims to work for the community and provides various banking facilities to its customers. If you are an individual with a disability or require a reasonable accommodation, please see our Job Seeker Help policy. The Citizens Bank routing number for Rhode Island is 011500120. The Citizens Bank Of East Tennessee Routing Number 064202967. Branch name. Jan 26, 2010 · Citizens bank, kathleen schmitt? - nh citizens bank routing number President, Manchester, NH Citizens Bank . Additionally, we offer the most experienced group of wealth management, trust and private banking professionals in the market to assist you. the citizens bank morehead routing number

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Members 1st Federal Credit Union

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Источник: https://creditunionmatch.com/credit-union/members-1st-federal-credit-union

Members 1st Federal Credit Union

Credit Union

Reviews

Mi

116 month ago

All the employees are very friendly and guys, the girls are all pretty too! lol

St

117 month ago

ATM does not dispense deposit envelopes. If the holder is empty, you have to go inside and request more.

Ch

117 month ago

Great bank. How ever it's kinda of a maze to get in.

Am

122 month ago

Atm for overnight

  • 6280 Carlisle Pike (at Salem Church Rd), Mechanicsburg, PA 17050, United States, GPS: 40.24506,-76.999084
  • (800) 237-7288
  • http://www.members1st.org
  • Mon–Thu9:00 AM–5:00 PM
    Fri9:00 AM–7:00 PM
    Sat9:00 AM–2:00 PM

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Members 1st Federal Credit Union at West High Street, Carlisle PA

Members 1st Federal Credit Union Contact Information

Branch address, phone number, and hours of operation for Members 1st Federal Credit Union at West High Street, Carlisle PA.

Name
Members 1st Federal Credit Union
Address
814 West High Street
Carlisle, Pennsylvania, 17013
Phone
800-237-7288
Hours
Monday 09:00 AM - 05:00 PM, Tuesday 09:00 AM - 05:00 PM, Wednesday 09:00 AM - 05:00 PM, Thursday 09:00 AM - 05:00 PM, Friday 09:00 AM - 07:00 PM, Saturday 09:00 AM - 02:00 PM, Sunday closed

Map of Members 1st Federal Credit Union at West High Street, Carlisle PA

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Members 1st Federal Credit Union Nearby

Members 1st Federal Credit Union NearbyLocation
Members 1st Federal Credit Union at Carlisle BarracksCarlisle, PA
Members 1st Federal Credit Union at West Penn StreetCarlisle, PA
Members 1st Federal Credit Union at South Spring Garden StreetCarlisle, PA
Members 1st Federal Credit Union at Walnut Bottom RoadCarlisle, PA
Members 1st Federal Credit Union at Spring RoadCarlisle, PA
Members 1st Federal Credit Union at York RoadCarlisle, PA
Members 1st Federal Credit Union at South Broad StreetMechanicsburg, PA
Members 1st Federal Credit Union at Tristan DriveDillsburg, PA
Members 1st Federal Credit Union at Market Plaza WayMechanicsburg, PA
Members 1st Federal Credit Union at Carlisle PikeMechanicsburg, PA

Members 1st Federal Credit Union

Members 1st Federal Credit Union near Carlisle

Источник: https://www.bank-locations.net/members-1st-federal-credit-union-2698-carlisle-pa-17013/
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4 Replies to “Members 1st federal credit union carlisle”

  1. Sir i have applyed the programme in 30 march 2020. I had taken the examination but in this time i did not have got any mail from hdfc. What can i do sir

  2. Who the hell is spending hundreds of thousands of dollars during the holidays? Spoiler alert: it's not the average consumer.

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