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Richmond, Virginia

For other uses, see Richmond (disambiguation).

Not to be confused with Richmond County, Virginia.

Capital of Virginia

Coordinates: 37°32′N77°28′W / 37.533°N 77.467°W / 37.533; -77.467

State capital and independent city in Virginia ---- United States


City of Richmond
Top: Downtown skyline above the falls of the James River Middle: St. John's Episcopal Church, Jackson Ward, Monument Avenue. Bottom: Virginia State Capitol, Main Street Station

Top: Downtown skyline above the falls of the James River Middle: St. John's Episcopal Church, Jackson Ward, Monument Avenue. Bottom: Virginia State Capitol, Main Street Station


"RVA",[1] "River City", "Fist City"[2][failed verification]


Latin: Sic Itur Ad Astra
(Thus do we reach the stars)

Richmond is located in Virginia
RichmondShow map of Virginia
Richmond is located in the United States


Location within the contiguous United States

Show map of the United States
Coordinates: 37°32′N77°28′W / 37.533°N 77.467°W / 37.533; -77.467
Country United States
State Virginia
Named forRichmond, United Kingdom
 • MayorLevar Stoney (D)
 • City62.57 sq mi (162.05 km2)
 • Land59.92 sq mi (155.20 km2)
 • Water2.65 sq mi (6.85 km2)
Elevation166.45 ft (50.7 m)
 • City226,610
 • Density3,782/sq mi (1,484.75/km2)
 • Metro1,263,617 (44th)
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP Codes

23173, 23218–23242, 23249–23250, 23255, 23260–23261, 23269, 23273–23274, 23276, 23278–23279, 23282, 23284–23286, 23288–23295, 23297–23298

Area code804
FIPS code51-67000[4]
GNIS feature ID1499957[5]
Nomenclature evolution
Prior to 1071 – Richemont: a town in Normandy, France.
1071 to 1501 – Richmond: a castle town in Yorkshire, UK.
1501 to 1742 – Richmond, a palace town in Surrey, UK.
1742 to present – Richmond, Virginia.

Richmond () is the capital city of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. It is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) and the Greater Richmond Region. Richmond was incorporated in 1742 and has been an independent city since 1871. As of the 2010 census, the city's population was 204,214;[6] in 2020, the population had grown to 226,610,[6] making Richmond the fourth-most populous city in Virginia. The Richmond Metropolitan Area has a population of 1,260,029, the third-most populous metro in the state.

Richmond is at the fall line of the James River, 44 miles (71 km) west of Williamsburg, 66 miles (106 km) east of Charlottesville, 91 miles (146 km) east of Lynchburg and 92 miles (148 km) south of Washington, D.C. Surrounded by Henrico and Chesterfield counties, the walmart money card account login is at the intersections of Interstate 95 and Interstate 64 and encircled by Interstate 295, Virginia State Route 150 and Virginia State Route 288. Major suburbs include Midlothian to the southwest, Chesterfield to the south, Varina to the southeast, Sandston to the east, Glen Allen to the north and west, Short Pump to the west and Mechanicsville to the northeast.[7][8]

The site of Richmond had been an important village of the Powhatan Confederacy, and was briefly settled by English colonists from Jamestown from 1609 to 1611. The present city of Richmond was founded in 1737. It became the capital of the Colony and Dominion of Virginia in 1780, replacing Williamsburg. During the Revolutionary War period, several notable events occurred in the city, including Patrick Henry's "Give me liberty or give me death" speech in 1775 at St. John's Church, and the passage of the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom written by Thomas Jefferson. During the American Civil War, Richmond was the capital of the Confederacy. It entered the 20th century with one of the world's first successful electric streetcar systems. The Jackson Ward neighborhood is a traditional hub of African-American commerce and culture.

Richmond's economy is primarily driven by law, finance, and government, with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, as well as notable legal and banking firms in the downtown area. The city is home to both a U.S. Court of Appeals, one of 13 such courts, and a Federal Reserve Bank, one of 12 such banks. Dominion Energy and WestRock, Fortune 500 companies, are headquartered in the city, with others in the metropolitan area.[9] The city continues to struggle with an exceptionally high rate of violent crime, making it one of the most dangerous cities in the United States.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16].


Main articles: History of Richmond, Virginia and Timeline of Richmond, Virginia

See also: Richmond in the American Civil War

Colonial era[edit]

After the first permanent English-speaking settlement was established in April 1607, at Jamestown, Virginia, Captain Christopher Newport led explorers northwest up the James River to an inhabited area within the Powhatan Nation.[17]

The earliest European settlement in Central Virginia was in 1611 at Henricus, where the Falling Creek empties into the James River. In 1619 early Virginia Company settlers struggling to establish viable moneymaking industries established the Falling Creek Ironworks. After decades of conflicts between the Powhatan and the settlers, the Falls of the James saw more White settlement in the late 1600s and early 1700s.[18]

The Battle of Bloody Run was fought near Add gift card to best buy account in 1656, after an influx of Manahoacs and Nahyssans from the North.

In 1737 planter William Byrd II commissioned Major William Mayo to lay out the original town grid. Byrd named the city after the English town of Richmond near (and now part of) London, because the view of the bend in the James River at the fall line was similar to the view of the River Thames from Richmond Hill in England (which was in turn named after Henry VII's ancestral town of Richmond, North Yorkshire[19]), where he had spent time during his youth. The settlement was laid out in April 1737 and incorporated as a town in 1742.[20]


In 1775 Patrick Henry delivered his famous "Give me liberty, or give me death" speech in St. John's Church in Richmond, crucial for deciding Virginia's participation in the First Continental Congress first interstate bank miles city setting the course for revolution and independence.[21] On April 18, 1780, the state capital was moved from the colonial capital of Williamsburg to Richmond, to provide a more centralized location for Virginia's increasing westerly population, as well as to isolate the capital from British attack.[22] The latter motive proved to be in vain, and in 1781, under the command of Benedict Arnold, Richmond was burned by British troops, causing Governor Thomas Jefferson to flee as the Virginia militia, led by Sampson Mathews, defended the city.[23]

Early United States[edit]

Richmond recovered quickly from the war, and by 1782 was once again a thriving city.[24] In 1786 the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (drafted by Thomas Jefferson, 1743–1826) was passed at the temporary capitol in Richmond, providing the basis for the separation of church and state, a key element in the development of freedom of religion in the United States.[25] A permanent home for the new government, the Greek Revival style of the Virginia State Capitol building, was designed by Jefferson with the assistance of Charles-Louis Clérisseau and completed in 1788.

After the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), Richmond emerged as an important industrial center. To facilitate the transfer of cargo from the flat-bottomed James River bateaux above the fall line to the ocean-faring ships below, George Washington helped design the James River and Kanawha Canal from Westham east to Richmond, to bypass Richmond's rapids on the upper James River with the intent of providing a water route across the Appalachian Mountains to the Kanawha River flowing westward into the Ohio then eventually to the Mississippi River. The legacy of the canal boatmen is represented by the figure in the center of the city flag. As a result of this and ample access to hydropower due to the falls, Richmond became home to some of the country's largest manufacturing facilities, including iron works and flour mills, the largest of their kind in the South. The resistance to the slave trade was growing by the mid-19th century; in one famous 1848 case, Henry "Box" Brown made history by having himself nailed into a small box and shipped from Richmond through Baltimore's President Street Station northward on the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad (a well-used "Underground Railroad" route for escaping disguised slaves) to abolitionists in Philadelphia, in the free state of Pennsylvania, escaping slavery.[26] By 1850 Richmond was connected by the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad to Port Walthall, where ships carrying over 200 tons of cargo could connect to Baltimore or Philadelphia and passenger liners could reach Norfolk, Virginia through the Hampton Roads harbor.[27] In the 19th century Richmond was connected to the North by the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad, which was later replaced by CSXT.

Civil War[edit]

Main article: Richmond in the American Civil War

On April 17, 1861, five days after the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter, the state legislature voted to secede from the United States and join the newly organized Confederate States of America. Official action came in May, after the Confederacy promised to move its national capital to Richmond from its provisional home in Montgomery, Alabama. The city was at the end of a long supply line, which made it difficult to defend, requiring the bulk of the Army of Northern Virginia and arguably the Confederacy's best troops and commanders.[28] It became the main target of Union armies, especially in the campaigns of 1862 and 1864–65.

Confederate President Jefferson Davis

In addition to Virginia and Confederate government offices and hospitals, a railroad hub, and one of the largest slave markets, Richmond had the largest iron foundry and arms factory during the war, the Tredegar Iron Works. It produced artillery and other munitions, including the 723 tons of armor plating that covered the CSS Virginia (the salvaged former steam frigate USS Merrimack and the world's first ironclad warship used in war) as well as much of the Confederates' heavy ordnance machinery.[29] The Confederate States Congress shared quarters with the Virginia General Assembly in Jefferson's designed Virginia State Capitol, with the Confederacy's executive mansion, known as the "White House of the Confederacy", two blocks away on Clay Street. The Seven Days Battles followed in late June and early July 1862, during which commanding Union General-in-Chief George B. McClellan threatened to take Richmond in the Peninsula campaign but failed.

Three years later, in March 1865, Richmond became indefensible after nearby Petersburg and several remaining rail supply lines to the south and southwest were broken. On March 25 Confederate General John B. Gordon's desperate attack on Fort Stedman east of Petersburg failed. On April 1 Federal Cavalry General Philip Sheridan, assigned to interdict the Southside Railroad, met brigades commanded by Southern General George Pickett at the Five Forks junction, smashing them, taking thousands of prisoners, and encouraging Union General-in-Chief Ulysses S. Grant to order a general advance. When the Union Sixth Corps broke through Confederate lines on the Boydton Plank Road south of Petersburg, Confederate casualties exceeded 5,000, about a tenth of Lee's defending army. Lee then informed President Jefferson Davis that he was about to evacuate Richmond.[30]

The White House of the Confederacy

The Confederate Army began the evacuation of Richmond on April 2, 1865. Davis and his cabinet, along with the government archives and Treasury gold, left the city by train that night, as government officials burned documents and departing Confederate troops burned tobacco and other warehouses to deny their contents to the victors. In the early a.m. of the following day, Confederate troops exploded the gun powder magazine, resulting in the death of several paupers residing in the temporary Almshouse.[31] It was on April 3, 1865, General Godfrey Weitzel, commander of the 25th Corps of the United States Colored Troops, accepted the city's surrender from the mayor and a group of leading citizens who remained.[32][33]The Union troops eventually stopped the raging fires but about 25% of the city's buildings were destroyed.[34]

President Abraham Lincoln visited Grant at Petersburg on April 3, and took a launch to Richmond up the James River the next day, while Davis attempted to organize his remaining Confederate government further southwest at Danville. Lincoln met Confederate assistant secretary of War John A. Campbell, and handed him a note inviting Virginia's state legislature to end their rebellion. After Campbell spun the note to Confederate legislators as a possible end to the Emancipation Proclamation, Lincoln rescinded his offer and ordered Weitzel to prevent the former Confederate state legislature from meeting. Union forces killed, wounded or captured 8,000 Confederate troops at Sayler's Creek southwest of Petersburg on April 6, as the Southerners continued a general retreat southwestward. Lee continued to reject Grant's surrender suggestions until Sheridan's infantry and cavalry moved around the shrinking Army of Northern Virginia and appeared in front of his withdrawing forces on April 8, cutting off the line of further retreat southwest. He surrendered his remaining approximately 10,000 troops at Appomattox Court House, meeting Grant the following morning at the McLean Home.[35] Davis was captured on May 10 near Irwinville, Georgia and taken back to Virginia, where he was imprisoned for two years at Fort Monroe until freed on bail.[36]


Richmond emerged a decade after the smoldering rubble of the Civil War to resume its position as an economic powerhouse, with iron front buildings and massive brick factories. Canal traffic peaked in the 1860s and slowly gave way to railroads, allowing Richmond to become a major railroad crossroads,[37] eventually including the site of the world's first triple railroad crossing. Tobacco warehousing and processing continued to play a role, boosted by the world's first cigarette-rolling machine, invented by James Albert Bonsack of Roanoke in 1880/81. Contributing to Richmond's resurgence was the country's first successful electrically powered trolley system, the Richmond Union Passenger Railway. Designed by electric power pioneer Frank J. Sprague, the system opened its first line in 1888, and electric streetcar lines rapidly spread to other cities.[38] Sprague's system used an overhead wire and trolley pole to collect current, with electric motors on the car's trucks.[39] Transition from streetcars to buses began in May 1947 and was completed on November 25, 1949.[40]

Retreating Confederates burned one-fourth of Richmond in April 1865.

20th century[edit]

By the early 20th century Richmond had an extensive network of electric streetcars, as shown here crossing the Mayo Bridge across the James River, c. 1917.

By the beginning of the 20th century the city's population had reached 85,050 in 5 square miles (13 km2), making it the most densely populated city in the Southern United States.[41] In 1900 the Census Bureau reported Richmond's population as 62.1% white and 37.9% black.[42] Freed slaves and their descendants created a thriving African-American business community, and the city's historic Jackson Ward became known as the "Wall Street of Black America". In 1903 African-American businesswoman and financier Maggie L. Walker chartered St. Luke Penny Savings Bank and served as its first president. She was the first female bank president in the United States. Today the bank is called the Consolidated Bank and Trust Company and is the country's oldest surviving African-American bank.[43] Other figures from this time included John Mitchell Jr. In 1910 the former city of Manchester consolidated with Richmond, and in 1914 the city annexed Barton Heights, Ginter Park, and Highland Park in Henrico County.[44] In May 1914 Richmond became the headquarters of the Fifth District of the Federal Reserve Bank.

Several major performing arts venues were constructed during the 1920s, including what are now the Landmark Theatre, Byrd Theatre, and Carpenter Theatre. The city's first radio station, WRVA, began broadcasting in 1925. WTVR-TV (CBS 6), Richmond's first television station, was the first TV station south of Washington, D.C.[45]

Between 1963 and 1965 there was a "downtown boom" that led to the construction of more than 700 buildings. In 1968 Virginia Commonwealth University was created by the merger of the Medical College of Virginia with the Richmond Professional Institute.[46] In 1970 Richmond's borders expanded by an additional 27 square miles (70 km2) on the south. After several years of court cases in which Chesterfield County fought annexation, more than 47,000 former Chesterfield County residents found themselves within the city's perimeters on January 1, 1970.[47] In 1996 still-sore tensions arose amid controversy involved in adding a statue of African American Richmond native and tennis star Arthur Ashe to the series of statues of Confederate generals on Monument Avenue.[48] After several months of controversy Ashe's bronze statue was finally completed, facing the opposite direction from the Confederate generals, on July 10, 1996.[49]

A multimillion-dollar flood wall was completed in 1995 to protect low-lying areas of city from the oft-rising James River. As a result, the River District businesses grew rapidly, and today the area is home to much of Richmond's entertainment, dining and nightlife activity, bolstered by the creation of a Canal Walk along the city's former industrial canals.[50][51]


See also: Richmond-Petersburg

Richmond is located at 37°32′N77°28′W / 37.533°N 77.467°W / 37.533; -77.467 (37.538, −77.462). According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 62 square miles (160 km2), of which 60 square miles (160 km2) is land and 2.7 square miles (7.0 km2) of it (4.3%) is water.[52] The city is in the Piedmont region of Virginia, at the James River's highest navigable point. The Piedmont region is characterized by relatively low, rolling hills, and lies between the low, flat Tidewater region and the Blue Ridge Mountains. Significant bodies of water in the region include the James River, the Appomattox River, and the Chickahominy River.

The Richmond-PetersburgMetropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the 44th largest in the United States, includes the independent cities of Richmond, Colonial Heights, Hopewell, and Petersburg, as well as the counties of Charles City, Chesterfield, Dinwiddie, Goochland, Hanover, Henrico, New Kent, Powhatan, and Prince George.[53] As of July 1, 2009[update] the Richmond—Petersburg MSA's population was 1,258,251.

Richmond is located 21.69 miles north of Petersburg, Virginia, 66.10 miles southeast of Charlottesville, Virginia, 79.24 miles northwest of Norfolk, Virginia, 96.87 miles south of Washington, D.C., and 138.72 miles northeast of Raleigh, North Carolina.


See also: Neighborhoods of Richmond, Virginia

Richmond's original street grid, laid out in 1737, included the area between what are now Broad, 17th, and 25th Streets and the James River. Modern Downtown Richmond is slightly farther west, on the slopes of Shockoe Hill. Nearby neighborhoods include Shockoe Bottom, the historically significant and low-lying area between Shockoe Hill and Church Hill, and Monroe Ward, which contains the Jefferson Hotel. Richmond's East End includes neighborhoods like rapidly gentrifying Church Hill, home to St. John's Church, as well as poorer areas like Fulton, Union Hill, and Fairmont, and public housing projects like Mosby Court, Whitcomb Court, Fairfield Court, and Creighton Court closer to Interstate 64.[54]

The area between Belvidere Street, Interstate 195, Interstate 95, and the river, which includes Virginia Commonwealth University, is socioeconomically and architecturally diverse. North of Broad Street, the Carver and Newtowne West neighborhoods are demographically similar to neighboring Jackson Ward, with Carver experiencing some gentrification due to its proximity to VCU. The affluent area between the Boulevard, Main Street, Broad Street, and VCU, known as the Fan, is home to Monument Avenue, an outstanding collection of Victorian architecture, and many students. West of the Boulevard is the Museum District, which contains the Virginia Historical Society and the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. South of the Downtown Expressway are Byrd Park, Maymont, Hollywood Cemetery, the predominantly black working-class Randolph neighborhood, and white working-class Oregon Hill. Cary Street between Interstate 195 and the Boulevard is a popular commercial area called Carytown.[54]

View of the Carillon from across the James River

Richmond's Northside is home to numerous listed historic districts.[55] Neighborhoods such as Chestnut Hill-Plateau and Barton Heights began to develop at the end of the 19th century when the new streetcar system made it possible for people to live on the outskirts of town and still commute to jobs downtown. Other prominent Northside neighborhoods include Azalea, Barton Heights, Bellevue, Chamberlayne, Ginter Park, Highland Park, and Rosedale.[54]

Farther west is the affluent, suburban West End. Windsor Farms is among its best-known sections. The West End also includes middle- to low-income neighborhoods such as Laurel, Farmington and the areas surrounding the Regency Mall. More affluent areas include Glen Allen, Short Pump, and the areas of Tuckahoe away from Regency Mall, all north and northwest of the city. The University of Richmond and the Country Club of Virginia are located on this side of town near the Richmond-Henrico border.[54]

The portion of the city south of the James River is known as the Southside. Southside neighborhoods range from the affluent and middle-class suburban Westover Hills, Forest Hill, Southampton, Stratford Hills, Oxford, Huguenot Hills, Hobby Hill, and Woodland Heights to the impoverished Manchester and Blackwell areas, the Hillside Court housing projects, and the ailing Jefferson Davis Highway commercial corridor. Other Southside neighborhoods include Fawnbrook, Broad Rock, Cherry Gardens, Cullenwood, and Beaufont Hills. Much of Southside developed a suburban character as part of Chesterfield County before being annexed by Richmond, most notably in 1970.[54]


According to the Köppen climate classification, Richmond has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen: Cfa), with very hot, humid summers and moderately cold winters.[56] The Trewartha classification defines Richmond as Temperate Oceanic Climate due to winter chill.[57]The mountains to the west act as a partial barrier to outbreaks of cold, continental air what time does td bank open tomorrow winter; Fm bank breaux bridge routing number air is delayed long enough to be modified, then further warmed as it subsides in its approach to Richmond. The open waters of the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean contribute to the humid summers and cool winters. The coldest weather normally occurs from late December to early February, and the January daily mean temperature is 37.9 °F (3.3 °C), with an average of 6.0 days with highs at or below the freezing mark.[58] Richmond's Downtown and areas south and east of downtown are in USDA Hardiness zones 7b. Surrounding suburbs and areas to the north and west of Downtown are in Hardiness Zone 7a.[59] Temperatures seldom fall below 0 °F (−18 °C), with the most recent subzero reading on January 7, 2018, when the temperature reached −3 °F (−19 °C).[58] The July daily mean temperature is 79.3 °F (26.3 °C), and high temperatures reach or exceed 90 °F (32 °C) approximately 43 days a year; 100 °F (38 °C) temperatures are not uncommon but do not occur every year.[60] Extremes in temperature have ranged from −12 °F (−24 °C) on January 19, 1940, up to 107 °F (42 °C) on August 6, 1918.[a] The record cold maximum is 11 °F (−12 °C), set on February 11 and 12, 1899. The record warm minimum is 81 °F (27 °C), set on July 12, 2011.[58]

Precipitation is rather uniformly distributed throughout the year. Dry periods lasting several weeks sometimes occur, especially in autumn, when long periods of pleasant, mild weather are most common. There is considerable variability in total monthly amounts from year to year so that no one month can be depended upon to be normal. Snow has been recorded during seven of the 12 months. Falls of 4 inches (10 cm) or more within 24 hours occur once a year on average.[58] Annual snowfall is usually moderate, averaging 10.5 inches (27 cm) per season.[58][62] Snow typically remains on the ground for only one or two days, but remained for 16 days in 2010 (January 30 to February 14). Ice storms (freezing rain or glaze) are not uncommon, but are seldom severe enough to do considerable damage.

The James River reaches tidewater at Richmond, where flooding may occur in any month of the year, most frequently in March and least in July. Hurricanes and tropical storms have been responsible for most of the flooding during the summer and early fall months. Hurricanes passing near Richmond have produced record rainfalls. In 1955, three hurricanes brought record rainfall to Richmond within a six-week period. The most noteworthy were Hurricane Connie and Hurricane Diane, which brought heavy rains five days apart. In 2004, the downtown area suffered extensive flood damage after the remnants of Hurricane Gaston dumped up to 12 inches (300 mm) of rain.[63]

Damaging storms occur mainly from snow and freezing rain in winter, and from hurricanes, tornadoes, and severe thunderstorms in other seasons. Damage may be from wind, flooding, rain, or any combination of these. Tornadoes are infrequent but some notable ones have been observed in the Richmond area.

Downtown Richmond averages 84 days of nighttime frost annually. Nighttime frost is more common in areas north and west of Downtown and less common south and east of downtown.[64] From 1981 to 2010 the average first temperature at or below freezing was on October 30 and the average last one on April 10.[65]

Climate data for Richmond International Airport, Virginia (1991–2020 normals,[b] extremes 1887–present[c])
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 81
Mean maximum °F (°C) 70
Average high °F (°C) 47.8
Daily mean °F (°C) 38.3
Average low °F (°C) 28.8
Mean minimum °F (°C) 11
Record low °F (°C) −12
Average precipitation inches (mm) 3.23
Average snowfall inches (cm) 3.7
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)10.0 9.0 10.8 10.5 11.1 10.6 11.4 9.4 9.3 8.1 8.4 10.0 118.6
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)1.9 1.7 1.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.9 5.6
Average relative humidity (%) 67.9 65.6 63.0 60.8 69.5 72.2 74.8 77.2 77.0 73.8 69.1 68.9 70.0
Average dew point °F (°C) 24.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours172.5 179.7 233.3 261.6 288.0 306.4 301.4 278.9 237.9 222.8 183.5 163.0 2,829
Percent possible sunshine56 59 63 66 65 69 67 66 64 64 60 55 64
Average ultraviolet index2 3 5 7 8 9 9 9 7 5 3 2 6
Source 1: NOAA (relative humidity and sunshine hours 1961–1990)[58][66][67]
Source 2: Weather Atlas[68]


Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[69]
1790–1960[70] 1900–1990[71]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 204,214 people living in the city. 50.6% were Black or African American, 40.8% White, 2.3% Asian, 0.3% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.6% of some other race and 2.3% of two or more races. 6.3% were Hispanic or Latino (of any race).[76]

Map of racial distribution in Richmond, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanicor Other(yellow)

As of the census[77] of 2000, there were 197,790 people, 84,549 households, and 43,627 families living in the city. The population density was 3,292.6 inhabitants per square mile (1,271.3/km2). There were 92,282 housing units at an average density of 1,536.2 per square mile (593.1/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 57.2% African American, 38.3% White, 0.2% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.5% from other races, and 1.5% from two or more races. Hispanic first interstate bank miles city Latino of any race were 2.6% of the population.

There were 84,549 households, out of which 23.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.1% were married couples living together, 20.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.4% were non-families. 37.6% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was home remedies for chronic sinus infection and the average family size was 2.95.

In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 21.8% under the age of 18, 13.1% from 18 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, and 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.5 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $31,121, and the median income for a family was $38,348. Males had a median income of $30,874 versus $25,880 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,337. About 17.1% of families and 21.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.9% of those under age 18 and 15.8% of those age 65 or over.


During the late 1980s and early 1990s, Richmond experienced a spike in overall crime, in particular, the city's murder rate. The city had 93 murders for the year of 1985, with a murder rate of 41.9 killings committed per 100,000 residents. Over the next decade, the city saw a major increase in total homicides. In 1990 there were 114 murders, for a murder rate of 56.1 killings per 100,000 residents. There were 120 murders in 1995, resulting in a murder rate of 59.1 killings per 100,000 residents, one of the highest in the United States.[78]

In 2004, Morgan Quitno Press ranked Richmond as the ninth (out of 354) most dangerous city in the United States.[79] In 2005, Richmond was ranked as the fifth most dangerous city overall and the 12th most dangerous metropolitan area in the United States.[80][81][82] The following year, Richmond saw a decline in crime, ranking as the 15th most dangerous city in the United States. By 2008, Richmond's position on the list had fallen to 49th.[83] By 2012, Richmond was no longer in the 'top' 200.[84]

Richmond's rate of major crime, including violent and property crimes, decreased 47 percent between 2004 and 2009 to its lowest level in more than a quarter of a century.[85] Various forms of crime tend to be declining, yet remaining above state and national averages.[86] In 2008, the city had recorded the lowest homicide rate since 1971.[87]

FBIUniform Crime Reports for Richmond for the year of 2013:[88]

City of Richmond onlyRichmond MSARate per 100,000 inhabitants
Violent crime1,3273,029243.8
Murder and non-negligent manslaughter37776.2
Aggravated assault6231,575126.8
Property crime8,70429,7612,395.7
Motor vehicle theft9381,899152.9

In recent years, as in many other American cities, Richmond has witnessed a rise in homicides. The Richmond Times-Dispatch reported 61 murders in Richmond in 2016, marking it "the city's deadliest year in a decade".[89]


In 1786, the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom, penned in 1779 by Thomas Jefferson, was adopted by the Virginia General Assembly in Richmond. The site is now commemorated by the First Freedom Center.

Richmond has several historic churches. Because of its early English colonial history from the early 17th century to 1776, Richmond has a number of prominent Anglican/Episcopal churches including Monumental Church, St. Paul's Episcopal Church and St. John's Episcopal Church. Methodists and Baptists made up another section of early churches, and First Baptist Church of Richmond was the first of these, established in 1780. In the Reformed church tradition, the first Presbyterian Church in the City of Richmond was First Presbyterian Church, organized on June 18, 1812. On February 5, 1845, Second Presbyterian Church of Richmond was founded, which was a historic church where Stonewall Jackson attended and was the first Gothic building and the first gas-lit church to be built in Richmond.[90]St. Peter's Church was dedicated and became the first Catholic church in Richmond on May 25, 1834.[91] The city is also home to the historic Cathedral of the Sacred Heart which is the mother church for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Richmond.[92]

The first Jewish congregation in Richmond was Kahal Kadosh Beth Shalom. Kahal Kadosh Beth Shalom was the sixth congregation in the United States. By 1822 K.K. Beth Shalom members worshipped in the first synagogue building in Virginia. They eventually merged with Congregation Beth Ahabah, an offshoot of Beth Shalom. There are two Orthodox Synagogues, Keneseth Beth Israel and Chabad of Virginia.[93] There is an Orthodox Yeshivah K–12 school system known as Rudlin Torah academy, which also includes a post high-school program. There are two Conservative synagogues, Beth El and Or Atid. There are two Reform synagogues, Beth Ahabah and Or Ami. Along with such religious congregations, there are a variety of other Jewish charitable, educational and social service institutions, each serving the Jewish and general communities. These include the Weinstein Jewish Community Center, Jewish Family Services, Jewish Community Federation of Richmond and Richmond Jewish Foundation.

Due to the influx of German immigrants in the 1840s, St. John's German Evangelical church was formed in 1843. Saints Constantine and Helen Greek Orthodox Cathedral held its first worship service in a rented room at 309 North 7th Street in 1917. The cathedral relocated to 30 Malvern Avenue in 1960 and is noted as one of two Eastern Orthodox churches in Richmond and home to the annual Richmond Greek Festival.[94]

There are seven current masjids in the Greater Richmond area, with three more currently in construction,[95][96][97] accommodating the growing Muslim population, the first one being Masjid Bilal.[98][99] In the 1950s, Muslims from the East End got organized under Nation of Islam (NOI). They used to meet in Temple #24 located on North Avenue. After the NOI split in 1975, the Muslims who joined mainstream Islam, start meeting at Shabaaz Restaurant on Nine Mile Road. By 1976, the Muslims used to meet in a rented church. They tried to buy this church, but due to financial difficulties the Muslims instead bought an old grocery store at Chimbarazoo Boulevard, the present location of Masjid Bilal. Initially, the place was called "Masjid Muhammad #24". Only by 1990 did the Muslims renamed it to "Masjid Bilal". Masjid Bilal was followed by the Islamic Center of Virginia, ICVA[100] masjid. The ICVA was established in 1973 as a non profit tax exempt organization. With aggressive fundraising, ICVA was able to buy land on Buford road. Construction of the new masjid began in the early 1980s. The rest of the five current masjids in the Richmond area are Islamic Center of Richmond (ICR)[101] in the west end, Masjid Umm Barakah[102] on 2nd street downtown, Islamic Society of Greater Richmond (ISGR)[103] in the west end, Masjidullah[104] in the north side, and Masjid Ar-Rahman[105] in the east end.

Hinduism is actively practiced, particularly in suburban areas of Henrico and Chesterfield. Some 6,000 families of Indian descent resided in the Richmond Region as of 2011. Hindus are served by several temples and cultural centers. The two most familiar are the Cultural Center of India (CCI) located off of Iron Bridge Road in Chesterfield County and the Hindu Center of Virginia in Henrico County which has garnered national fame and awards for being the first LEED certified religious facility in the commonwealth.

Seminaries in Richmond include: the school of theology at Virginia Union University; a Presbyterian seminary, Union Presbyterian Seminary, and the Baptist Theological Seminary at Richmond. The McCollough Theological Seminary of the United House of Prayer For All People is located in the Church Hill neighborhood of the city.

Bishops that sit in Richmond include those of the Episcopal Diocese of Virginia (the denomination's largest); the Richmond Area of the United Methodist Church (Virginia Annual Conference), the nation's second-largest and one of the oldest. The Presbytery of the James—Presbyterian Church (USA) – also is based in the Richmond area.

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Richmond was canonically erected by Pope Pius VII on July 11, 1820. Today there are 235,816 Catholics at 146 parishes in the Diocese of Richmond.[106] The city of Richmond is home to 19 Catholic parishes.[107]Cathedral of the Sacred Heart is home to the current bishop, Most Reverend Barry C. Knestout, who was appointed by Pope Francis on December 15, 2017.

The Icici bank one time password generation online of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has three stakes in the greater Richmond area (a stake is an organizational unit that is made up of multiple congregations. As of December 31, 2017, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints reported 95,379 members in 200 congregations within 22 stakes across the state of Virginia).[108] In April 2018, church president Russell M. Nelson announced a new temple to be built in Virginia. The first temple of the church to be built in the state, the temple is located in Glen Allen, Virginia, a northwest suburb of Richmond.[109]


Richmond tobacco warehouse c. 1910s

Richmond's strategic location on the James River, built on undulating hills at the rocky fall line separating the Piedmont and Tidewater regions of Virginia, provided a natural nexus for the development of commerce. Throughout these three centuries and three modes of transportation, the downtown has always been a hub, with the Great Turning Basin for boats, the world's only triple crossing of rail lines, and the intersection of two major interstates.

Law and finance have long been driving forces in the economy.[110] Richmond is particularly known for its bankruptcy court.[111] The city is home to both the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, one of 13 United States courts of appeals, and the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, one of 12 Federal Reserve Banks, as well as offices for international companies such as Genworth Financial, Capital One, Philip Morris USA, and numerous other banks and brokerages. Richmond is also home to four of the largest law firms in the United States: Hunton & Williams, McGuireWoods, Williams Mullen, and LeClairRyan. Another law firm with a major Richmond presence is Troutman Sanders, which merged with Richmond-based Mays & Valentine LLP in 2001.

Since the 1960s Richmond has been a prominent hub for advertising agencies and advertising related businesses. One of the most notable Richmond-based agencies is The Martin Agency, founded in 1965 and currently employing 500 people. As a result of local advertising agency support, VCU's graduate advertising school (VCU Brandcenter) is consistently ranked the No. 1 advertising graduate program in the country.[112]

Richmond is home to the rapidly developing Virginia BioTechnology Research Park,[113] which opened in 1995 as an incubator facility for biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies. Located adjacent to the Medical College of Virginia (MCV) Campus of Virginia Commonwealth University, the park currently[when?] has more than 575,000 square feet (53,400 m2) of research, laboratory and office space for a diverse tenant mix of companies, research institutes, government laboratories and non-profit organizations. The United Network for Organ Sharing, which maintains the nation's organ transplant waiting list, occupies one building in the park. Philip Morris USA opened a $350 million research and development facility in the park in 2007. Once fully developed, park officials expect the site to employ roughly 3,000 scientists, technicians and engineers.

Richmond's revitalized downtown includes the Canal Walk, a new Greater Richmond Convention Center, and expansion on both VCU campuses. A new performing arts center, Richmond CenterStage,[114] opened on September 12, 2009.[115] The complex included a renovation of the Carpenter Center and construction of a new multipurpose hall, community playhouse, and arts education center in parts of the old Thalhimers department store.[116]

Richmond is also fast-becoming known for its food scene, with several restaurants in the Fan, Church Hill, Jackson Ward and elsewhere around the city generating regional and national attention for their fare. Departures magazine named Richmond "The Next Great American Food City" in August 2014.[117][118] while Metzger Bar & Butchery made its "Best New Restaurants: 12 To Watch" list.[119]Craft beer, cider and liquor production is also growing in the River City, with twelve micro-breweries in city proper; the oldest is Legend Brewery, founded in 1994. Two cideries, Buskey Cider and Blue Bee Cider, are located in the popular beverage neighborhood of Scott's Addition,[120] and are joined by nine breweries, one meadery, and one distillery.[121] Three distilleries, Reservoir Distillery, Belle Isle Craft Spirits and James River Distillery, were established in 2010, 2013 and 2014, respectively.

Additionally, Richmond is gaining attention from the film and television industry, with several high-profile films shot in the metro region in the past few years, including the major motion picture Lincoln which led to Daniel Day-Lewis's third Oscar, Killing Kennedy with Rob Lowe, airing on the National Geographic Channel and Turn, starring Jamie Bell and airing on AMC. Richmond was the main filming location for the PBS drama series Mercy Street, which premiered in Winter 2016. Several organizations, including the Virginia Film Office and the Virginia Production Alliance, along with events like the Richmond International Film Festival and French Film Festival, continue to draw supporters of film and media to the region.

Fortune 500 companies and other large corporations[edit]

Six Fortune 500companies are headquartered in the Richmond area.

The Greater Richmond area was named the third-best city for business by MarketWatch in September 2007, ranking behind only the Minneapolis and Denver areas and just above Boston. The area is home to six Fortune 500 companies: electric utility Dominion Resources; CarMax; Owens & Minor; Genworth Financial, MeadWestvaco/ WestRock, and Altria Group.[9] However, only Dominion Resources is headquartered within the city of Richmond; the others are located in the neighboring counties of Henrico and Hanover.[122] In 2008, Altria moved its corporate HQ from New York City to Henrico County, adding another Fortune 500 corporation to Richmond's list. In February 2006, Greater boston food bank twitter announced that they would move from Stamford, Connecticut, to Richmond in 2008 with the help of the Greater Richmond Partnership,[123] a regional economic development organization that also helped locate Aditya Birla Minacs,[124],[125] and Honeywell International,[126] to the region. In July 2015, MeadWestvaco merged with Georgia-based Rock-Tenn Company creating WestRock Company.

Other Fortune 500 companies, while not headquartered in the area, do have a major presence. These include SunTrust Banks (based in Atlanta), Capital One (officially based in McLean, Virginia, but founded in Chs mankato cash bids with its operations center and most employees in the Richmond area), and medical and pharmaceutical giant McKesson Corporation (based in Las Colinas, Texas). Capital One and Philip Morris USA are two of the largest private Richmond-area employers. DuPont maintains a production facility in South Richmond known as the Spruance Plant. UPS Freight, the less-than-truckload division of United Parcel Service has its corporate headquarters in Richmond.

Other companies based in Richmond include engineering specialists CTI Consultants, chemical company NewMarket; Brink's, a security and armored car company; Estes Express Lines, a freight carrier, Universal Corporation, a tobacco merchant; Cavalier Telephone, now Windstream, a telephone, internet, and digital television provider formed in Richmond in 1998; Cherry Bekaert & Holland, a top 30 accounting firm serving the Southeast; the law firm of McGuireWoods; Elephant Insurance, an insurance company subsidiary of Admiral Group and Media General, a company specializing in broadcast media.


As of 2016, 24.8% of Richmond residents live below the federal poverty line, the second-highest among the 30 largest cities and counties in Virginia.[127] An Annie E. Casey Foundation report issued in 2016 also determined that Richmond had a child poverty rate of 39%, more than double the rate for Virginia first united bank mortgage company a whole.[128] As of 2016, Richmond had the second-highest rate of eviction filings and judgments of any American city with a population of 100,000 or more (in states where complete data was available).[129] Some Richmond first interstate bank miles city, such as the Creighton Court public-housing complex, are particularly well known for concentrations of poverty.[130][131]

Arts and culture[edit]

Museums and monuments[edit]

Several of the city's large general museums are located near the Boulevard. On Boulevard proper are the Virginia Historical Society and the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, lending their name to what is sometimes called the Museum District. Nearby on Broad Street is the Science Museum of Virginia, housed in the neoclassical former 1919 Broad Street Union Station. Immediately adjacent is the Children's Museum of Richmond, and two blocks away, the Virginia Center for Architecture. Within the downtown are the Library of Virginia and the Valentine Richmond History Center. Elsewhere are the Virginia Holocaust Museum and the Old Dominion Railway Museum.

Richmond is home to museums and battlefields of the American Civil War. Near the riverfront is the Richmond National Battlefield Park Visitors Center and the American Civil War Center at Historic Tredegar, both housed in the former buildings of the Tredegar Iron Works, where much of the ordnance for the war was produced. In Court End, near the Virginia State Capitol, is the Museum of the Confederacy, along with the Davis Mansion, also known as the White House of the Confederacy; both feature a wide variety of objects and material from the era. The temporary home of former General Robert E. Lee still stands on Franklin Street in downtown Richmond. The history of slavery and emancipation are also increasingly represented: there is a former slave trail along the river that leads to Ancarrow's Boat Ramp and Historic Site which has been developed with interpretive signage, and in 2007, the Reconciliation Statue was placed in Shockoe Bottom, with parallel statues placed in Liverpool and Benin representing points of the Triangle Trade.

Other historical points of interest include St. John's Church, the site of Patrick Henry's famous "Give me liberty or give me death" speech, and the Edgar Allan Poe Museum, features many of his writings and other artifacts of his life, particularly when he lived in the city as a child, a student, and a successful writer. The John Marshall House, the home of the former Chief Justice of the United States, is also located downtown and features many of his writings and objects from his life. Hollywood Cemetery is the burial grounds of two U.S. Presidents as well as many Civil War officers and soldiers. Beth Ahabah Museum and Archives collects, preserves and exhibits materials that focus on Jewish history and culture specifically connected to Richmond, VA.[132]

The city was home to many monuments and memorials, most notably those along Monument Avenue. Many of the monuments on Monument Avenue were removed after the Floyd (George) riots of 2020 [133]. On June 9, 2020, protesters tore down the Columbus monument and threw it in Fountain Lake.[134] Located near Byrd Park is the famous World War I Memorial Carillon, a 56-bell carillon tower. Dedicated in 1956, the Virginia War Memorial is located on Belvedere overlooking the river, and is a monument to Virginians who died in battle in World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Gulf War, the War in Afghanistan, and the Iraq War. One other very important monument which was left standing is the Bill "Bojangles" Robinson monument in Jackson Ward.

Agecroft Hall is a Tudormanor house and estate located on the James River in the Windsor Farms neighborhood of Richmond. The manor house was built in the late 15th century, and was originally located in the Agecroft area of Pendlebury, in the historic county of Lancashire in England.

Visual and performing arts[edit]

Musicians of note associated with Richmond include Jason Mraz, Jimmy Dean, Agents of Good Roots, Aimee Mann, Alabama Thunderpussy, Avail,[135]Broadside, Carbon Leaf, Count Me Out, Cracker, D'Angelo, Denali, Down to Nothing, Engine Down, Four Walls Falling, Iron Reagan,[136]Lamb of God, Lil Ugly Mane, Lucy Dacus, Municipal Waste, Nickelus F, River City High, Sparklehorse, Strike Anywhere, Chris Brown, Eric Stanley, and Fighting Gravity.[137] Richmond is also home of GWAR, a heavy metalart collective based in a Scott's Addition warehouse.[138]


With the advent of the Richmond Mural Project (RMP) by RVA Mag and Art Whino; as well as the RVA Street Art Festival in 2013, the city quickly gained more than 100 murals from international mural artists such as Aryz, Roa, Ron English, and Natalia Rak. While the RMP focused on international talent, the RVA Street Art festival helmed by long-time local mural artist Ed Trask focused largely on regional artists (although it also brought in PoseMSK, Jeff Soto, and Mark Jenkins.) After some criticism the RMP included its first local artist, Nils Westergard, who was already on the international circuit; following the next year with Jacob Eveland. The two festivals are unrelated, with the RMP being defunct, and the RVA Street Art festival happening sporadically due to funding issues. With the advent of the George Floyd protests across america, local artist Hamilton Glass spearheaded the First interstate bank miles city Walls Project featuring walls by pairs of local artists.

Many of the murals a unrelated to any project, and are done under the impetus of the artists alone.

Professional performing companies[edit]

From earliest days, Virginia, and Richmond in particular, have welcomed live theatrical performances. From Lewis Hallam's early productions of Shakespeare in Williamsburg, the focus shifted to Richmond's antebellum prominence as a main colonial and early 19th first interstate bank miles city performance venue for such celebrated American and English actors as William Macready, Edwin Forrest,[139] and the Booth family. In the 20th century, Richmonders' love of theater continued with many amateur troupes and regular touring professional productions. In the 1960s a small renaissance or golden age accompanied the growth of professional dinner theaters and the fostering of theater by the Virginia Museum, reaching a peak in the 1970s with the establishment of a resident Equity company at the Virginia Museum Theater (now the Leslie Cheek) and the birth of Theatre IV, a company that continues to this day under the name Virginia Repertory Theatre. log cabin homes for sale in georgia Repertory Theatre is Central Virginia's largest professional theatre organization. It was created in 2012 when Barksdale Theatre and Theatre IV, which had shared one staff for over a decade, merged to become one company. With an annual budget of over $5 million, the theatre employs over 240 artists each year, presenting a season at the November Theatre and Theatre Gym at Virginia Rep Center, as well as productions at the Hanover Tavern and The Children's Theatre in The Shops at Willow Lawn. The historic November Theatre opened in 1911 as the Empire Theatre, offering stock and vaudeville performances. In 1915 it changed its name from the Empire to the Strand and continued under that name until damaged by fire in 1927. It reopened in 1933 as the "Booker T," and served as the leading black movie house for many years when Richmond was segregated. It closed in 1974 and was idle until real estate developer Mitchell Kambis rescued and renovated it. Kambis restored the Empire name and in 1979 leased it to Keith Fowler, artistic director of the American Revels Company. Revels restored live professional theater to downtown Richmond. Revels was succeeded by Theatre IV in 1984. On its 100th anniversary in 2011 the theatre was further restored when Sara Belle and Neil November made a $2 million gift to Theatre IV and Barksdale.[1] The November now serves as Virginia Rep's headquarters and home and anchors the Arts District. It is currently under the leadership of Artistic Director Bruce Miller and Managing Director Phil Whiteway.[140]

  • Richmond Ballet, founded in 1957.
  • Richmond Triangle Players, founded in 1993, delivers theater programs exploring themes of equality, identity, affection and family across sexual orientation and gender spectrums.
  • Richmond Symphony
  • Virginia Opera, the Official Opera Company of the Commonwealth of Virginia, founded in 1974. Presents eight mainstage performances every year at the Carpenter Theater.
  • Other venues and companies[edit]

    Other venues and companies include:

    • The Altria Theater, the city-owned opera house.
    • The Leslie Cheek Theater, after lying dormant for eight years, re-opened in 2011 in the heart of the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts at 200 N. Boulevard. The elegant 500-seat proscenium stage was constructed in 1955 to match then museum director Leslie Cheek's vision of a theater worthy of a fine arts institution.[141] Operating for years as the Indigo credit card customer service email Museum Theater (VMT),[142] it supported an amateur community theater under the direction of Robert Telford. When Cheek retired, he advised trustees on the 1969 appointment of Keith Fowler as head of the theater arts division and artistic director of VMT. Fowler led the theater to become the city's first resident Actors Equity\LORT theater, adding major foreign authors and the premieres of new American works to the repertory. Under his leadership VMT reached a "golden age," gaining international recognition[143] and more than doubling its subscription base. Successive artistic administrations changed the name of the theater to "TheatreVirginia". Deficits caused TheatreVirginia to close its doors in 2002.[144] Now, renovated and renamed for its founder, the Leslie Cheek is restoring live performance to VMFA and, while no longer supporting a resident company, it is available for special theatrical and performance events.[citation needed]
    • The National Theater is Richmond's premier music venue. It holds 1500 people and has shows regularly throughout the week. It opened winter of 2007 and was built in 1923. It features a state-of-the-art V-DOSC sound system, only the sixth installed in the country and only the third installed on the East Coast.
    • Visual Arts Center of Richmond, a not-for-profit organization that first interstate bank miles city one of the largest nongovernmental arts learning centers in the state of Virginia, founded in 1963. Serves 28,000 individuals annually.
    • Richmond CenterStage, a performing arts center that opened in Downtown Richmond in 2009 as part of an expansion of earlier facilities. The complex includes a renovation of the 1,700-seat Carpenter Theater and construction of a new multipurpose hall, community playhouse, and arts education center in the location of the old Thalhimers department store.
    • The Byrd Theatre in Carytown, a movie palace from the 1920s that features second-run movies, as well as the French Film Festival.
    • Virginia Commonwealth University School of the Arts, consistently ranked as one of the best in the nation.[145]
    • Dogwood Dell, an amphitheatre in Byrd Park, where the Richmond Department of Recreation and Parks presents an annual Festival of the Arts.
    • School of the Performing Arts in the Richmond Community (School of the Performing Arts in the Richmond Community). SPARC was founded in 1981, and trained children to become "triple threats", meaning they were equally versed in singing, acting, and dancing. SPARC has become the largest community-based theater arts education program in Virginia and it offers classes to every age group, during the summer and throughout the year.
    • Classic Amphitheatre at Strawberry Capital one caps logo, the former summer concert venue located at Richmond International Raceway.

    Commercial art galleries include Metro Space Gallery and Gallery 5 in a newly designated arts district. Not-for-profit galleries include Visual Arts Center of Richmond, 1708 Galleryy and Artspace.

    In addition, in 2008, a new 47,000-square-foot (4,400 m2) Gay Community Center opened on the city's north side, which hosts meetings of chase premier checking vs total checking kinds, and includes a large art gallery space.

    Literary arts[edit]

    Richmond has long been a hub for literature and writers. Edgar Allan Poe was a child in the city, and the town's oldest stone house is now 1st dibs magazine museum to his life and works.[146]The Southern Literary Messenger, which included his writing, is just one of many notable publications that began in Richmond. Other noteworthy authors who have called Richmond home include Pulitzer-winning Ellen Glasgow, controversial figure James Branch Cabell, Meg Medina, Dean King, David L. Robbins, and MacArthur Fellow Paule Marshall. Tom Wolfe was born in Richmond, as was Breaking Bad creator Vince Gilligan. David Baldacci graduated from Virginia Commonwealth University, where the creative writing faculty has included Marshall, Claudia Emerson, Kathleen Graber, T. R. Hummer, Dave Smith, David Wojahn, and Susann Cokal. Notable graduates include Sheri Reynolds, Jon Pineda, Anna Journey and Joshua Poteat.[147] A community-based organization, James River Writers, serves the Greater Richmond Region, It sponsors many programs for writers at all stages of their careers and puts on an annual writers' conference that draws attendees from miles away.[147]


    See also: National Register of Historic Places listings in Richmond, Virginia and List of tallest buildings in Richmond

    Richmond is home to many significant structures, including some designed by notable architects. The city contains diverse styles, including significant examples of Georgian, Federal, Greek Revival, Neoclassical, Egyptian Revival, Romanesque Revival, Gothic Revival, Tudor Revival, Italianate, Queen Anne, Colonial Revival, Art Deco, Modernist, International, and Postmodern buildings.

    Much of Richmond's early architecture was destroyed by the Evacuation Fire in 1865. It is estimated that 25% of all buildings in Richmond were destroyed during this fire.[148] Even fewer now remain due to construction and demolition that has taken place since Reconstruction. In spite of this, Richmond contains many historically significant buildings and districts. Buildings remain from Richmond's colonial period, such as the Patteson-Schutte House and the Edgar Allan Poe Museum (Richmond, Virginia), both built before 1750.

    Architectural classicism is heavily represented in all districts of the city, particularly in Downtown, the Fan, and the Museum District. Several notable classical architects have designed buildings in Richmond. The Virginia State Capitol was designed by Thomas Jefferson and Charles-Louis Clérisseau in 1785. It is the second-oldest US statehouse in continuous use (after Maryland's) and was the first US government building built in the neo-classical style of architecture, setting the trend for other state houses and the federal government buildings (including the White House and The Capitol) in Washington, D.C.[149] Robert Mills designed Monumental Church on Broad Street. Adjoining it is the 1845 Egyptian Building, one of the few Egyptian Revival buildings in the United States.

    The firm of John Russell Pope designed Broad Street Station as well as Branch House on Monument Www prudential com online retirement com, designed as a private residence in the Tudor style, now serving as the Branch Museum of Architecture and Design. Broad Street Station (or Union Station), designed in the Beaux-Arts style, is no longer a functioning station but is now home to the Science Museum of Virginia. Main Street Station, designed by Wilson, Harris, and Richards, has been returned to use in its original purpose. The Jefferson Hotel and the Commonwealth Club were both designed by the classically trained Beaux-Arts architects Carrère and Hastings. Many buildings on the University of Richmond campus, including Jeter Hall and Ryland Hall, were designed by Ralph Adams Cram, most famous for his Princeton University Chapel and the Cathedral of Saint John the Divine.

    Richmond's urban residential neighborhoods also hold particular significance to the city's fabric. The Fan, the Museum District, Jackson Ward, Carver, Carytown, Oregon Hill and Church Hill (among others) are largely single use town homes and mixed use or full retail/dining establishments. These districts are anchored by large streets such as Franklin Street, Cary Street, the Boulevard, and Monument Avenue. The city's growth in population over the last decade has been concentrated in these areas.


    Miles CityFirst Interstate Bank

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    First Interstate Bank in Miles City, MT offers a comprehensive suite of personal trico neoform business products to take care of your diverse financial needs. Whether you’re a first-time home buyer looking for a mortgage, an established business looking to streamline your payment methods, or someone who is ready to plan your financial what is the atm deposit limit for bank of america, our local banking experts at First Interstate Bank Miles City Main Branch will help you reach your goals.

    First Interstate Bank is a community banking organization headquartered in Billings, Montana. With over 150 locations across Idaho, Montana, Oregon, South Dakota, Washington, and First interstate bank miles city, First Interstate is still run on the same principles as when it was founded by Homer Scott, Sr. in Sheridan, Wyoming in 1968 – to take the best possible care of our customers, our employees, and the places we call home.

    Today, our dedication to our founder’s values of customer satisfaction, creative management, productive employees, shareholders’ value and community involvement remains unwavering. Driven by strong corporate and family values, First Interstate is committed to providing exemplary customer service, exceeding customer expectations with our products and services, and supporting the communities we serve.


    First Interstate Bank


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    Address: 2909 Dickinson St 59301 Miles City, MT, US

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    First Interstate Bank10.09.2021

    With Coronavirus cases in our communities increasing, we have made the decision to close all branch lobbies beginning Monday, November 16, through at least the end of the year. Our drive-ups remain open during regular business hours, and bankers are available for appointments. Mobile/Online Banking and telebanking are also available for your financial needs. For location information and hours, please visit

    First Interstate Bank08.09.2021

    The health and safety of our clients and employees is our top priority. We are closely monitoring the rising number of Coronavirus cases in many of our communities and have made the difficult decision to temporarily close all branch lobbies, beginning Monday, July 6. Our drive-ups remain open, and appointments with bankers are available by calling the branch. For locations and hours, please visit our website at Online/mobile banking and our Client Contact Center are available as always.

    First Interstate Bank06.09.2021

    Update: Power has been restored. Our drive-up is open. Thank you for your patience!

    First Interstate Bank03.09.2021

    Our drive-ups are open Monday-Friday until 4:00 p.m. and closed Saturday until further notice. For your safety, our lobbies remain closed. Banking services are available 24/7 through Online and Mobile Banking.

    First Interstate Bank01.09.2021

    Effective Monday, May 11, our Montana branch lobbies are open from 10 a.m. to 2 p.m., Monday-Friday. Our drive-ups in all states continue to be open during regular business hours.

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    BankFirst Interstate Bank
    BranchMiles City Branch
    Address1115 Main Street,
    Miles City, Montana 59301
    Contact Number(406) 232-5590
    Service TypeFull Service, brick and mortar office
    Date of Establishment07/15/1974
    Branch Deposits$133,777,000

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    Routing Number for First Interstate Bank in Montana

    A routing number is a 9 digit code for identifying a financial institute for the purpose of routing of checks (cheques), fund transfers, direct deposits, e-payments, online payments, etc. to the correct bank branch. Routing numbers are also known as banking routing numbers, routing transit numbers, RTNs, ABA numbers, and sometimes SWIFT codes (although these are quite different from routing numbers as SWIFT codes are solely used for international wire transfers while routing numbers are used for domestic transfers). Routing numbers differ for checking and savings accounts, prepaid cards, IRAs, lines of credit, and wire transfers. Usually all banks have different routing numbers for each state in the US. You can find the routing number for First Interstate Bank in Montana here.

    Total Assets:The sum of all assets owned by the institution including cash, loans, securities, bank premises and other assets. This total does not include off-balance-sheet accounts.

    RSSD:The unique number assigned by the Federal Reserve Board (FRB) to the top regulatory bank holding company. This unique identifier for First Interstate Bank is 659855.

    FDIC CERT #:The certificate number assigned to an institution for deposit insurance. The FDIC Certificate Number for Miles City Branch office of First Interstate Bank in Miles City, MT is 01105. This unique NUMBER is assigned by the FDIC and is used to identify institutions and for the issuance of insurance certificates by FDIC.


    From Indiana to California, a guide to the nearly 3,000 miles of new U.S. bike trails

    Cyclists on Old State Road 37 in Bloomington, Ind., on Nov. <a href=best high yield savings rates, 2021. ">

    Cyclists on Old State Road 37 in Bloomington, Ind., on Nov. 13, 2021. (James Brosher/The Washington Post)

    Sitting outside a century-old confectionery in southern Indiana, Jim Schroeder popped a piece of candy into his mouth and laid out my future. After cycling along country roads that could moonlight as an airport runway, we would climb a succession of hills before coasting into Bloomington, the halfway point of our 122.5-mile bike ride.

    “You will want to use your granny gear,” the avid cyclist and Bloomington-based bike guide suggested, referring to the high gear used on steep ascents more often associated with Colorado than the Hoosier State.

    Assuming the Midwestern hills would be speed bumps by another name, I ignored his advice. My stubbornness would later come back to taunt me: I had to hop off my bike not once but three times for the push of shame.

    “If you’d used your granny gear …” became his common refrain.

    Indiana’s vertical terrain is a key feature of the route that Jim spent six years designing and rallying behind. “USBR 235 is for people who want to see more than soybean and cornfields and flat, flat, flat,” he said. The hills of southern Indiana might have remained a state secret if not for the U.S. Bicycle Route System (USBRS), a network of bike-friendly routes with transnational aspirations. In August, the Adventure Cycling Association announced the latest crop of initiates: 18 itineraries in five states, including Jim’s alternate from Indianapolis to Seymour. The new additions enlarge the web by 2,903 miles, to 17,734 miles in 31 states and the District.

    The Ramp Creek Covered Bridge stands at the northern entrance <a href=best high yield savings rates the nearly 16,000-acre Brown County State Park near Nashville, Ind. ">

    The Ramp Creek Covered Bridge stands at the northern entrance to the nearly 16,000-acre Brown County State Park near Nashville, Ind. (James Brosher/The Washington Post)

    “The national corridor plan is to have 50,000 miles of routes across the United States that will be suitable for long-distance bike travel in a mix of environments,” said Jennifer Hamelman, USBRS program manager with the Adventure Cycling Association, a partner in the project. “It will be like the interstate highway system,” but for human-powered two-wheelers.

    The idea of constructing an Interstate 80 for cyclists first surfaced in the late 1960s. The seed grew into a sapling a decade later, when the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, a nonprofit organization that represents state highway and transportation departments, threw its support behind the concept. In 1982, it debuted the first two routes: USBR 1 in Virginia and North Carolina and USBR 76 in Virginia, Kentucky and Illinois. Enthusiasm for the project ebbed in the following years but resurged in the early aughts, around the same time the Adventure Cycling Association joined the mission. Since 2011, the associations have been unveiling new routes twice a year. The August collection, which also included realignments in Florida and California, set a record for the highest number of designations and total mileage since the program’s inception.

    “The last cycle was the most successful in terms of hard numbers,” Hamelman said, adding that the association will announce the next round of routes in December.

    The USBRS is not constructing new infrastructure; first interstate bank miles city knits together preexisting tracks, such as urban bike lanes, park pathways, rails-to-trails conversions, rural roads and highway shoulders. The patchwork of roads mirrors the country’s kaleidoscope of landscapes. The scenery can change as dramatically as the conditions under your wheels - from city to country, farmland to forest, coastline to desert.

    Only a quarter of the USBRS has signage, so bikers follow local or state markers wherever they are available. You can download the maps through the Adventure Cycling Association’s website or find them on Ride With GPS. Navigation can be challenging if you are solo and unfamiliar with the area, which is why I recruited Jim to play tour guide. In addition to his job as a pharmacist, he runs a bike-touring company called Indiana Jim’s Bicycling Adventures. He mapped out our three-day itinerary, suggesting overnight accommodations and incorporating detours to the museum at Bill Monroe’s Music Park & Campground in Bean Blossom (the “Father of Bluegrass Music” owned the park from the early 1950s until his death in 1996) and the eccentric Story Inn on the edge of Brown County State Park. He also arranged a shuttle to transport my bags between hotels and kindly loaned me his wife’s road bike.

    For USBR 235, an alternative to USBR 35, we kicked off the ride with a ceremonial spin around Monument Circle in downtown Indianapolis. From there, we moved seamlessly from the Indianapolis Cultural Trail to White River State Park, sticking to bike lanes. On the outskirts of the city, we shared the road with (mostly polite) cars as we rolled past the Eli Lilly campus, power plants and an industrial area that Jim admitted “is ugly, but it’s real America.” The road turned more rural and hushed. Papery cornstalks rustled in the wind. A deer darted through the woods. A hawk flew figure-eights overhead. We stopped in Martinsville, which bills itself as the “City of Mineral Water,” for a sugar fix at the Martinsville Candy Kitchen.

    The Soldiers and Sailors Monument stands over Monument Circle in downtown Indianapolis.

    The Soldiers and Sailors Monument stands over Monument Circle in downtown Indianapolis. (James Brosher/The Washington Post)

    The hills came, and I conquered. I could not make the same claim on the following days. At the end of the 30-mile ride to Brown County State Park, I hoofed it up a steep incline leading to the Abe Martin Lodge, my bed for the night. During our 40-miler to Seymour, I lost momentum twice. Fortunately, the hills on the final stretch receded into wavelets, then flattened out like a glassy pond. As Jim and I pedaled toward the finish line, we compared our favorite songs by John Mellencamp, who was born in Seymour and owns an estate in the Bloomington area. I debated which song to use as my USBR 235 anthem: “Pink Houses” or “Hurts So Good.”

    The Story Inn in Story, Ind., is on the edge of Brown County State Park.

    The Story Inn in Story, Ind., is on the edge of Brown County State Park. (James Brosher/The Washington Post)

    A mural dedicated to musician John Mellencamp adorns the side of a music store in Seymour, Ind. Mellencamp was born in Seymour and owns an estate in the Bloomington area.

    A mural dedicated to musician John Mellencamp adorns the side of a music store in Seymour, Ind. Mellencamp was born in Seymour and owns an estate in the Bloomington area. (James Brosher/The Washington Post)

    At a diner in town, Jim bought me a celebratory cup of coffee and handed me printouts of the route, a certificate of achievement of sorts. Of course, my journey didn’t have to end in Seymour. I could bid Jim farewell and jump onto USBR 35 and pedal south to Kentucky or north to Michigan. But instead, I caught a ride back to Indianapolis and pressed the reset button on my bike odometer.

    Where to cycle next? Any of the new routes, obviously. Below are descriptions of the trails, plus the total mileage for each state. Ohio, which added almost 1,200 miles, boasts the highest count. (Note: Mileage can vary in each direction because of road features and restrictions, such as one-way streets and roundabouts.) The network is just going to expand, so there’s no time better than now to start spinning through the USBR miles - with or without your granny gear.


    Number of additions: Six

    Total USBR miles: 1,531

    The routes: The 374.1-mile USBR 21 runs like a crooked zipper down the Buckeye State. The route starts in Cleveland’s Edgewater Park and follows the Ohio to Erie Trail through big cities (Akron, Cleveland), quaint villages (Millersburg, South Charleston) and farming communities knee-deep in corn and soy. In Cincinnati, bikers go with the flow of the Ohio River until Aberdeen, where they can wave a padded-gloved hand at Kentucky, across the river. The 196.1-mile USBR 44 picks up where 21 leaves off in Massillon and pushes westward until it bumps into Fort Wayne, Ind.

    The 308.2-mile USBR 25 connects Toledo with Cincinnati and hitches a ride along the Great Miami River Trail, which Ohio Magazine called the “Best Bike Trail in Ohio” in 2019. From Cincinnati, the trail overlaps with USBR 21. For views from the opposite bank first interstate bank miles city the Great Miami River, jump on USBR 225, the 2.3-mile alternate route that passes through Piqua, where - “tra-la-la” - the kids’ book series “Captain Underpants” is set.

    The Firelands Rails to Trails, a volunteer organization that manages the North Coast Inland Trail in Huron County, refers to the 225.6-mile USBR 30 as the original “east-west transcontinental route.” Cyclists trace the bottom lip of Lake Erie, which stretches from the Pennsylvania border to about 10 miles north of Toledo, near the Michigan state line. Between the towns of Elyria and Genoa, riders pedal along the North Coast Inland Trail, a rails-to-trails project that plans to link Ohio with its eastern and western neighbors. To ride tandem with Lake Erie, take the 78.1-mile USBR 230 alternate, which runs west of Cleveland and through Sandusky, home of Cedar Point, the roller coaster capital of the world, before veering slightly inland.


    Number of additions: Five

    Total USBR miles: 1,167 miles

    The routes: The 349.8-mile USBR 77 pushes off from the Idaho border and travels south to the Cache Valley, which is named after the early trappers who hid (“cacher” in French) their pelts and provisions here. From Logan, a university town on the Logan River, cyclists roll through the Wasatch Front and the eeny, meeny, miny, moe towns of Ogden, Salt Lake City and Provo. The route climbs to an elevation of more than 8,300 feet into Fishlake National Forest, where aspens form a halo around the state’s largest natural mountain lake. The journey ends in Torrey, the gateway to the Capitol Reef National Park, and joins USBR 70 from Cedar City to the Colorado border. The 40.6-mile USBR 677 takes a more panoramic route along Utah Lake, a freshwater lake shaped like a butterfly wing. The 88.8-mile USBR 877 bridges two other routes: USBR 77 in Sigurd, a tiny town with Danish roots, and 79 in Panguitch, northwest of Bryce Canyon National Park. The 9.4-mile USBR 679 provides the missing link between USBR 70 at Duck Creek Village, a jumping-off point for those going to national parks, and USBR 79, at Highway 89. The 269.3-mile USBR 79 existed before this latest round of additions, but it stopped short of the Arizona state line. Now, bikers can ride the final miles from Kanab, an outdoor adventure hub and film site known as “Little Hollywood,” to the southern exit of Utah.


    Number of additions: Four

    Total USBR miles: 892

    The routes: The 103.4-mile USBR 81 wriggles through the undulating wheat, barley and lentil fields of the Palouse, a bountiful agricultural area in the Pacific Northwest. The route passes through farming communities such as Pullman, home of Washington State University, then plunges about 2,000 feet through Wawawai Canyon to the Snake River. Along the country’s ninth-longest river, bikers will pick up the scent of Lewis and Clark en route to Clarkston, Wash. (Across the river is the other half of the Pacific Northwest duo: Lewiston, Idaho.) The ride ends in Asotin, the head of Snake River Road and Washington’s only access point to Hells Canyon, North America’s deepest river gorge. The alternate 23.1-mile USBR 281 surfs the waves of pastoral hills surrounding the prairie towns of Colton and Uniontown. The route terminates on a bluff that looms over the confluence of the Clearwater and Snake rivers, on the Idaho state line.

    USBR 40 has big ambitions (the trail will eventually span 400 miles across the state), but you have to start somewhere - say, 1.9 miles from the Idaho border to Tekoa, a small town curled at the feet of Tekoa Mountain.

    On the 77.9-mile USBR 20, bikers set off near Lewis & Clark State Park and cross a slice of the ancient basalt flow known as the Columbia Plateau. The route features two 2,000-feet-and-change crests: one near Dayton and the Tucannon River basin, and the other along the Pataha Valley to the Alpowa Summit. Afterward, riders glide down to the Snake River and through Chief Timothy State Park, a 282-acre island on Lower Granite Lake. The route ends at Clarkston’s Southway Bridge, a drier route over the Snake River to Idaho.


    Number of additions: Two

    Total USBR miles: 1,003

    The routes: The 333.6-mile USBR 66 rides shotgun on Route 66, following as much of the Mother Road as is logistically possible. The route travels from beachy (Santa Monica Pier) to bone dry (the Mojave Desert town of Needles). Bikers will laugh in the face of Los Angeles traffic as they zip through Beverly Hills, Hollywood and Chinatown. Below the San Gabriel Mountains, the Pacific Electric Trail covers a 20-mile stretch of converted railroad tracks that once transported citrus, wine and, during World War II, supplies and troops. The route jags north to the Route 66-rich cities of Victorville and Barstow and calls it a wrap at the Colorado River, near the Arizona border.

    The 440.4-mile USBR 95 takes riders on a majestic and anthemic journey from Crescent City, where the ocean, ancient redwoods and two wild rivers collide near the Oregon border, down the Pacific Coast to San Francisco. Cyclists will feel as if they are pedaling inside a View-Master as redwood forests, sculptural rock formations and cliffside lighthouses flicker by. Bikers will also check off several national and state parks, two forts (Baker and Bragg) and a number of cities still practicing the Endless Summer of Love, such as Eureka and Arcata. From Sausalito, the ride crescendos on the Golden Gate Bridge, with a final thrill ride through one of the country’s hilliest cities.

    PLEASE NOTE: Potential travelers should take local and national public health directives regarding the pandemic into consideration before planning any trips. Travel health notice information can be found on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s interactive map showing travel recommendations by destination and the CDC’s travel health notice webpage.

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